80th All India Presiding Officers’ Conference

Context: This year is being celebrated as the centenary year of the Presiding Officers’ Conference.

Analysis

  • The All India Presiding Officers’ Conference began in 1921.
  • The theme for this year’s conference is “Harmonious coordination between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary- Key to a Vibrant Democracy.”
  • The event, also known as the Speakers’ Conference, will end on the Constitution Day (November 26).
  • Lok Sabha Speaker is the chairperson of the conference.

Constitution Day

  • On this day 70 years ago — November 26, 1949 — the Constituent Assembly of India adopted our Constitution.
  • Since 2015, this day has been observed as the Constitution Day of India, also known as Samvidhan Divas.
  • The Constitution came into effect two months later, on January 26, 1950 — celebrated as Republic Day.
  • In 2015, the Union Government announced that November 26 would be observed as Constitution Day to promote “constitutional values amongst citizens”.
  • This was the year that marked the 125th birth anniversary of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution.
  • Before this, the day was observed as National Law Day. Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India.

Constituent Assembly

  • The Constituent Assembly, the body set up to draft the Constitution of India, held its first session on December 9, 1946, and was attended by 207 members, including nine women.
  • Initially, the Assembly had 389 members; however, after Independence and Partition, its strength was reduced to 299.
  • The Assembly took over three years to draft the Constitution, spending over 114 days considering the content of the draft alone.
  • On December 13, 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru moved the “Objectives Resolution” that was unanimously adopted as the Preamble on January 22, 1947.
  • The Drafting Committee, chaired by Ambedkar, was one among over 17 committees of the Constituent Assembly.
  • The last session of the Constituent Assembly ended on November 26, 1949 when the Constitution was adopted.
  • It came into effect on January 26 the following year after 284 members signed it.
  • January 26 was chosen since the Poorna Swaraj resolution of the Indian National Congress was declared on this day in 1930.
  • In 1934, the demand of the Constituent Assembly was made. M.N. Roy, a communist party leader, was the first who mooted the idea.
  • Indians were allowed to draft the Indian Constitution in the August offer.