Context: This year is being celebrated as the centenary year of the Presiding Officers’ Conference.
- The All India Presiding Officers’ Conference began in 1921.
- The theme for this year’s conference is “Harmonious coordination between Legislature, Executive and Judiciary- Key to a Vibrant Democracy.”
- The event, also known as the Speakers’ Conference, will end on the Constitution Day (November 26).
- Lok Sabha Speaker is the chairperson of the conference.
- On this day 70 years ago — November 26, 1949 — the Constituent Assembly of India adopted our Constitution.
- Since 2015, this day has been observed as the Constitution Day of India, also known as Samvidhan Divas.
- The Constitution came into effect two months later, on January 26, 1950 — celebrated as Republic Day.
- In 2015, the Union Government announced that November 26 would be observed as Constitution Day to promote “constitutional values amongst citizens”.
- This was the year that marked the 125th birth anniversary of Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution.
- Before this, the day was observed as National Law Day. Ambedkar was also the first Law Minister of India.
- The Constituent Assembly, the body set up to draft the Constitution of India, held its first session on December 9, 1946, and was attended by 207 members, including nine women.
- Initially, the Assembly had 389 members; however, after Independence and Partition, its strength was reduced to 299.
- The Assembly took over three years to draft the Constitution, spending over 114 days considering the content of the draft alone.
- On December 13, 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru moved the “Objectives Resolution” that was unanimously adopted as the Preamble on January 22, 1947.
- The Drafting Committee, chaired by Ambedkar, was one among over 17 committees of the Constituent Assembly.
- The last session of the Constituent Assembly ended on November 26, 1949 when the Constitution was adopted.
- It came into effect on January 26 the following year after 284 members signed it.
- January 26 was chosen since the Poorna Swaraj resolution of the Indian National Congress was declared on this day in 1930.
- In 1934, the demand of the Constituent Assembly was made. M.N. Roy, a communist party leader, was the first who mooted the idea.
- Indians were allowed to draft the Indian Constitution in the August offer.