Course Outline

Schedule and Topics Covered

Paper 1


LectureTopics Covered Time
1Mitosis and Meiosis, Linkage and Crossing over;  Mendelian inheritance; Deviations to Mendelian genetics;  Cytoplasmic inheritance. 2.5
2Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Expression of genes; Recombinant DNA technology.2.5
3Sex determination, Blood groups and polymorphism; Sex influenced and Sex-limited characters; 2.5
4Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Trans-genesis. Chromosome aberrations; 2.5
5Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits;2.5
6Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; 2.5
7Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Effective population size; 2.5
8Breeding value, Estimation of breeding value,  Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.2.5
9Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives; dominance and epistatic deviation;2.5
10Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestock and Poultry. Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production;2.5
11Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding 
12Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Partitioning of variation; 2.5
13Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; 2.5
14Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response;2.5


LectureTopics Covered Time 
1Blood constituents – Properties and functions, Blood cell formation, Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry, plasma proteins production, classification and properties,2.5 Hr 
2Coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders, Anticoagulants, Blood groups & Blood volume, Plasma expanders2.5 Hr 
3Buffer systems in blood, Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.2.5 Hr 
4Circulation – Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heartbeat, electrocardiograms, Effect of ions on heart function, Metabolism of cardiac muscle2.5 Hr 
5Nervous and Chemical regulation of heart, Effect of temperature and stress on heart; Blood Pressure and hypertension, Osmotic regulation, Arterial pulse, Vasomotor regulation of circulation & Shock. 2.5 Hr 
6Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier, Cerebrospinal fluid, Circulation in birds.2.5 Hr 
7Respiration – Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases, Neural control of respiration, Chemoreceptors, Hypoxia & Respiration in birds. 2.5 Hr 
8Excretion-Structure and function of kidney, Formation of urine, Methods of studying renal function, Renal regulation of acid-base balance  Physiological constituents of urine2.5 Hr 
9Urinary secretion in chicken, Sweat glands and their function, & Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction, Renal failure, Passive venous congestion, 2.5 Hr 
10Endocrine glands – Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis & Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion, Hormonal receptors classification and function. 2.5 Hr 
11Prenatal and postnatal growth, Maturation, Growth curves, Measures of growth, Factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality, Hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection, 2.5 Hr 
12Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions & Digestive organs and their functions.2.5 Hr 
13Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation; Mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour, 2.5 Hr 
14Animal ecology, Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production. Climatology – various parameters and their importance. 2.5 Hr 


LectureTopics Covered  
1Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry.    
2Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – Nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods.   
3Energy and Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation etc  Energy protein interrelationships.  
4Latest advances in protein nutrition – Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets.  Evaluation of protein quality.   
5Major and trace minerals – Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions.  
6Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.  
7Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts.  
8Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and feed processing. Feed analysis and quality control.   
9Anti – nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds.   
10Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.  
11Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls.   
12Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition.  
13Feeding of goats for meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.  
14Swine Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.  
15Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.  


Lecture TopicTime
1Commercial Dairy Farming & Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries.2.5
2Mixed farming and specialized farming, Economic dairy farming,  Socio-economic concept.2.5
3Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming, 2.5
4Factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. 2.5
5Herd recording, budgeting, Cost of milk production, Pricing policy; Personnel Management.  Feeding records.2.5
6Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.2.5
7Supply of greens throughout the year, Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock;2.5
8Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. 2.5
9Supply of greens throughout the year, Feeding regimes for young and mature stock & New trends in enhancing production and management. 2.5
10Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities2.5


LectureTopics Covered Time
1Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. 2.5
2Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. 2.5
3Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints in transfer of technology. 2.5
4Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.2.5


Lecture TopicTime
1Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination2.5
2Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, sperm concentration2.5
3Factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. 2.5
4Composition of diluents & Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Transport of diluted semen. 2.5
5Anoestrus and repeat breeding. Factors leading to Infertility2.5

Paper 2

Histology, Anatomy, Pharma

Lecture TopicTime
1Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E. staining, Freezing microtomy, Bright field microscope and electron microscope. 2.5 Hr
2Cytology- Structure of cell, organelles and inclusions; Cell division & Cell types, Tissues and their classification- Embryonic and Adult tissues 2.5 Hr
3Comparative histology of Organs- Vascular, Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo-skeletal 2.5 Hr
4Comparative histology of Organs- Urogenital systems Endocrine glands, Integuments & Sense organs.2.5 Hr
5Gametogenesis, Fertilization & Germ layers, Germ layer derivatives- Endodermal, Mesodermal and Ectodermal derivates.2.5 Hr
6Foetal membranes and placentation, types of placenta in domestic mammals, Teratology, twins and twinning, Organogenesis 2.5 Hr
7Regional Anatomy: Para-nasal sinuses of ox, Surface anatomy of salivary glands, Structures involved in epidural anaesthesia,  Superficial lymph nodes2.5 Hr
8Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental and cornual nerve block. 2.5 Hr
9Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves2.5 Hr
10Surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities, Comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.2.5 Hr
11Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system, Functional anatomy in relation to respiration, Flying, digestion and egg production.2.5 Hr
12Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. 2.5 Hr
13Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance,  Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system. 2.5 Hr
14Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections, Chemotherapy of parasitic infections. 2.5 Hr
15Use of hormones in therapeutics & Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues of animals, Chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.2.5 Hr
16Toxicity due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.2.5 Hr
17Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil, Importance of climate in animal health, Stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.2.5 Hr
18Effect of environment on animal function and performance- Relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture, Animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birds2.5 Hr

Animal Diseases

Lecture TopicTime
1Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat2.5
2Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat2.5
3Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat2.5
4Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of  horses, pigs and poultry.2.5
5Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of  horses, pigs and poultry.2.5
6Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.2.5
7Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.2.5
8Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.2.5
9Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.2.5
10Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like Impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion2.5
11Dehydration, stroke, poisoning, Diagnosis and treatment of the neurological disorders.2.5
12Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases, herd immunity, disease free zones, ‘zero’ disease concept, chemoprophylaxis, Disease free zone2.5
13Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. 2.5
14Hernia, choking abomasal displacement- Caesarean operations, Rumenotomy-Castrations.2.5
15Disease investigation techniques, Materials for laboratory investigation, Establishment of Animal Health Centres2.5


Lecture TopicTime
1Zoonoses – Classification, definition,  Occupational zoonotic diseases. Role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases2.5
2Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, Application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control. 2.5
3Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. 2.5
4OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures. 2.5
5Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases – State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases2.5
6SPCA- Veterolegal cases Certificates, Materials and Methods of collection of samples for vetero-legal investigation.2.5


LectureTopics Covered Time
1Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their control.2.5
2Preparation: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks.2.5
3Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand.2.5
4Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.2.5
5Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing and marketing of Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese2.5
6Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing and marketing of Condensed, Evaporated, Dried milk and Baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi; 2.5
7By-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards2.5
8Quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control. Costing of dairy products2.5
9Ante mortem care and management of food animals, Stunning, Slaughter and Dressing operations; Abattoir requirements and designs; 2.5
10Meat inspection procedures and Judgement of carcass meat cuts, Grading of carcass meat cuts- Duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.2.5
11Hygienic methods of handling production of meat, Spoilage of meat and control measures, Post – slaughter physiochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them2.5
12Quality improvement methods, Adulteration of meat and detection, Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry. 2.5
13Physical and chemical characteristics of meat, Meat emulsions, Methods of preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and formulations. 2.5
14Slaughter house by-products and their utilization, Edible and inedible by products, Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals. 2.5
15Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre – slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS standards. 2.5
16Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. Value added meat products. 2.5
17Social and economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter house by-products Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.2.5
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