Animal Diseases and Surgery
Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene
Veterinary Public Health
4. Meat Hygiene and Technology
5. LPT Milk

Books, Syllabus & PYQs of Veterinary Science Paper 2

1.Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:

1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E. staining – Freezing microtomy- MicroscopyBright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of cell, organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types- Tissues and their classificationembryonic and adult tissues-Comparative histology of organs-Vascular. Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo- skeletal and urogenital systems- Endocrine glands -Integuments-sense organs.

1.2 Embryology – Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers- foetal membranes and placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and twinning- organogenesis -germ layer derivatives- endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivates.

1.3 Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX- surface anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar,mental and cornual nerve block. Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.

1.4 Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.

1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs – Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in therapeutics- chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.

1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation – Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil- Importance of climate in animal health- effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture- animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birdsstress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.

2.Animal Diseases:

2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.

2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.

2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.

2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.

2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.

2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseasesherd immunity- disease free zones- zero disease concept- chemoprophylaxis.

2.7 Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal displacement- Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.

2.8 Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory investigationEstablishment of Animal Health CentersDisease free zone.

3. Veterinary Public Health:

3.1 Zoonoses. – Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseasesoccupational zoonotic diseases.

3.2 Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.

3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases – State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases- S P C A- Veterolegal casesCertificates -Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.

4. Milk and Milk Products Technology:

4.1 Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their control. Preparation of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.

4.2 Milk Products Technology: Selection of raw materials, processing, storing , distributing and marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products- BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control. Costing of dairy products

5. Meat Hygiene and Technology:

5.1 Meat Hygiene.

5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts- grading of carcass meat cuts- duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.

5.1.2 Hygenic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat and control measures- Post – slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them- Quality improvement methods – Adulteration of meat and detection – Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.

5.2 Meat Technology.

5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods of preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and formulations.

5.3 By- products- Slaughter house byproducts and their utilization- Edible and inedible by products- Social and economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter house by-products- Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.

5.4 Poultry Products TechnologyChemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre – slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS standards. Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. Value added meat products.

5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming – Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.



1.Discuss the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Distribution and function of nerves originating from lumbosacral plexus.

(b) Histology of adrenal gland.

(c) Role of public health veterinarians in maintaining rural health.

(d) Application of HACCP and GMP in market milk production in a dairy plant with a capacity of one lakh litres per day.

(e) Nutritive value of egg and preservation of shell eggs for marketing.

2. (a) Define biotransformation and discuss the pathways of biotransformation of drugs in animal body.

(b) Write in detail the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of Trypanosomiasis in cattle.

(c) Discuss about preslaughter care and handling of food animals.

3. (a) Discuss in detail about anaemia in animals with its classification symptoms, clinical pathology and diagnosis.

(b) Meat from spent/aged animals and birds are tough. How the meat from such animals and birds can be utilised economically and profitably?

(c) What is the need for drying of milk? Discuss the principle and process of spray drying of milk including its advantages and disadvantages.

4.(a) Discuss the effects of climate change on the productivity of large ruminants.

(b) What is post parturient recumbency? Discuss about its aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical findings and diagnosis.

(c) what are he measures do you suggest to improve the quality of meat for domestic consumption?

5. Discuss the following in about 150 words each :

(a) Ectodermal and endodermal derivatives in mammalian embryo.

(b) Emerging zoonotic diseases of international concern with specific remarks on prevalence, control and preventive measures for influenza.

(c) Processing of cheddar cheese with a flow chart.

(d) Factors influencing the microbial growth on meat causing spoilage and the control measures to retard microbial growth.

(e) Processing of wool and its specially as fibre for garment manufacture.

6.(a) What are the materials to be sent to the laboratory by field veterinarians for diagnosis of different bacterial and viral diseases of poultry?

(b) Enlist meat and milk borne diseases. Discuss on their epidemiology, prevention and control.

(c) Discuss about the processing of “ready to cook” chicken with a flow diagram and BIS grading for dressed chicken.

7.(a) Define paralysis and discuss about its classification and line of treatment in domestic animals.

(b) Write about the technology recommended for converting condemned carcasses into meat-cum-bone meal and discuss on the methods employed for the above.

(c) Write the salient features (aetiology, non human principal host, mode of infection, symptoms and class of zoonoses) for the following zoonotic diseases :

  1. Brucellosis
  2. Tuberculosis
  3. Leptospirosis

8.(a) Define pasteurization of milk. Write its objectives and basis of formulation of time-temperature standards. Enlist different methods of milk pasteurization and discuss in detail about the method used in modern commercial dairy plants.

(b) Discuss about the aetiology, epidemiology, symptoms, differential diagnosis, treatment and control of erysipelas of swine.

(c) Give an example of surgical condition requiring general anaesthesia in cattle and discuss briefly about the different stages of general anaesthesia.


1. Discuss the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Anatomical and Physiological classification of neurons.

(b) Compare Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis.

(c) Clinical manifestations of vitamin B complex deficiency diseases in poultry.

(d) Causes and principal ruminants involved in bacterial zoonotic diseases.

(e) Legal standards for whole milk powder and skim milk powder.

2.(a) Give holistic picture of the types of slaughter house byproducts and their potential utilization including the social and economic implications.

(b) Describe in detail the clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment of various types of ruminal disorders.

(c) Discuss about airsacs in fowl and its significance.

3.(a) Describe in detail about the histology of testis in bull.

(b) Write in detail the ante-mortem inspection procedure in a slaughter house.

(c) Describe anaesthesia and procedure of Caesarean section in a cow.

4.(a) Write in detail etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and control of rabies in dogs.

(b) Discuss about the nerve blocks in head region of cattle with emphasis on surgical anatomy.

(c) Briefly describe the physical changes that occur in preserved meat.

5. Discuss the following in about 150 words each:

(a) Clinical examination of cranial nerves in cattle.

(b) Immunization schedule for the protection against layer bird diseases.

(c) Prevention and control steps for haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle.

(d) Rules for the post-mortem examination of a Veterolegal case.

(e) Sources of contamination of meat in a slaughter house.

6.(a) What are functions of packaging milk and milk products? Describe various types and forms of packaging material used for milk and milk products.

(b) Write in detail etiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of ketosis in buffaloes.

(c) Describe about regulation of hormone secretion in animals.

7.(a) Describe about role of parasites in immunity and mechanism of action of antiparasitic drugs.

(b) Define fermented milk and state its advantages. Describe the complete manufacturing process involved in the production of cultured buttermilk.

(c) Describe requirements of instruments, buildings and manpower for establishment of Veterinary Hospital at village level.

8.(a) Discuss in detail clinical manifestations of diseases of nervous system in cattle.

(b) Describe about heat stress, its clinical symptoms and management in buffaloes during summer.

(c) Give a brief outline of the chemical composition and nutritional content of poultry meat.


Q1. Discuss the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Management of “Monday Morning Sickness” in horses.
  2. Clinical findings and management of organophospate toxicity in cattle.
  3. Formation and function of blood-testis barrier.
  4. Scalding technique in poultry and pig slaughtering.
  5. Causes of flavor defects in milk.

Q2. (a) Write in detail about the collection of biological samples for laboratory investigation and their procedure.

        (b) Explain in detail the mechanism, clinical symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning.

        (c) Describe the legal aspects of wounds.

Q3. (a) Explain zoonoses. Discuss the routes of transmission of various zoonotic diseases.

       (b) Discuss in detail the nerves constituting the brachial plexus.

       (c) Describe the method of manufacturing, packaging and storage of butter.

Q4. (a) Discuss the methods for preservation of meat and meat products.

       (b) Discuss in detail various types of vaccines. Also enlist the diseases against which vaccines are available in India.

  • Explain in detail the classification and uses of preanesthetic. Also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of inhalation anesthesia.

Q5. Discuss the following in about 150 words each:

  • Etiology and treatment of haemoprotozoan diseases in cattle.
  • Classification of placenta in domestic animals.
  • How does heat stress affect the performance of dairy cows?
  • Pharmaceutical uses of glandular parts of slaughtered animals.
  • Rules and regulations for prevention of animal diseases.

Q6. (a) Describe the etiology, clinical findings, diagnosis and control of foot and mouth disease in ruminants.

       (b) Explain with the flow diagrams, the manufacture of sterilized, homogenized and flavoured milk.

       (c) Describe in detail the structure, composition and nutritive value of egg.

Q7. (a) Write down the methods of stunning and explain electrical stunning in small and large animals.

       (b) Discuss the housing requirements for specific categories of cattle in a large dairy farm.

       (c) Describe the histological structure of ovary with a suitable diagram.

Q8. (a) Explain the post-slaughter physico-chemical changes in meat and the factors affecting it.

       (b) Classify dairy industry by-products and explain the general method of preparing acid casein.

       (c) Describe the clinical manifestations of vitamin deficiency in poultry.


1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each:

  • Describe the housing requirements for 10 sows, 1 boar and their followers.
  • Identify the deficiency disease in a layer flock with the problem of leathery eggs and describe the treatment and control of the same.
  • What is Mediterranean fever? Describe the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the same.
  • Discuss the methods of pasteurization of milk.
  • What are the rapid screening methods for detection of mycotoxin in animal products?


  • Describe the etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, PM lesions, diagnosis and control of swine fever.
  • Write in detail about zoonoses associated with meat and milk.
  • Explain the relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture.


  • What is AQI? Describe in detail about various environmental pollutants and their control with regards to animal health.
  • What are indigenous milk products? Describe in detail about the sanitation requirement in dairy plant for clean and safe milk.
  • What are satellite slaughterhouses? Give your suggestion on improving the distribution of safe meat in the Indian context.


  • Explain in detail about the important building components in abattoir for wholesome meat production and discuss about the significance of automation in meat processing.
  • Describe the roles of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases.
  • Discuss the modern concept and immunization schedule at an organized poultry layer farm.

5. Discuss the following in about 150 words each:

  • Types of placenta in domestic animals.
  • Diagnosis and prevention of rabies
  • OIE regulations on food-borne infections of animal origin
  • Grading of row milk
  • Adulteration in meat trade and the techniques to identify it


  • Classify the glands in mammals. Describe in detail about features of the glands associated with male and female reproduction
  • Describe in detail about symptoms and surgical management of hip dislocation in large animals.
  • Explain the epidemiological measures in the investigation of FMD outbreak.


  • Describe the direct impacts of antibiotic resistance on health care of animals.
  • Explain in detail the merits and demerits in the system of egg price fixation in India.
  • Describe the functional anatomy of domestic fowl in relation to egg production.


  • Describe in detail the slaughtering techniques, meat inspection and preservation of poultry meat and products.
  • What are reconstituted mil and recombined milk? Describe the preparation of Srikhand, Lassi and Yogurt.
  • Describe the drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance.