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Diarrhea is the passing of loose or liquid stool, more often than normal.Diarrhea is not a disease but rather a sign of many different diseases. Usually infection (viral, bacterial, parasitic)


Loose frequent bowel movements, dehydration.


1. Morphological evidence/ physical examination

  • Frequency, consistency & shape of faeces.
  • Detection of Abnormal elements
  • Blood, mucus, fibrin, ova, larvae and adult helminth.

2. Endoscopic studies (to visualize mucosa of oesophagus, stomach & colon)

3. Proctoscopy or colonoscopy

4. Biospy of affected mucosa followed by cytological and historical examination of impression smear

5. Examination for parasite

  1. Macroscopic
  2. Microscopic

Qualitative –

  • Qualitative smear technique
  • Sedimentation method

Quantitive –

  • Stoll’s method
  • Mc master technique    


  • Correction of primary cause
  • Correction of dehydration, acidosis, electrolyte balance (supportive therapy), diet regulation
  • Symptomatic therapy

Supportive therapy

  • Isotonic fluid -ringer’s lactate
  • Normal Saline

Symptomatic therapy

  • To reduce bowl movement
  • To improve consistency of faeces

Drug reducing Motility

  • Diphenoxylate & Atropine preparation
  • Adsorbent & protectant
  • Pectin & kaolin

Specific Therapy

  1. Antibacterial
  2. Sulphonamide
  3. Amoxicillin @ 4-10 mg/kg. B.W, orally
  4. Antiprotozoal
  5. Metronidazole
  6. Anthelmintic
  7. Piperazine
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