Lesson 3, Topic 4
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Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category)

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What are Angiosperms and Gymnosperms?

Angiosperms and gymnosperms are seed-bearing plants. They have the natural ability to produce seeds surrounded by nutritive tissue and coated with a seed coat. Gymnosperm plants were present 200 million years before the angiosperm plants.

The main difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms is diversity. The diversity of angiosperm is greater than the gymnosperm. The higher diversity indicated the angiosperms are adaptive to terrestrial ecosystems. Another characteristic of angiosperms is the flowers and production of fruits. But, in gymnosperms seed are not included in a fruit.

Read on to explore the difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Difference between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

AngiospermsGymnosperms
 A seed is produced by flowering plants and is enclosed within an ovaryA seed is produced by non-flowering plants and are unenclosed or naked.
 The lifecycle of these plants are seasonal These plants are evergreen
 Has triploid tissue Has haploid tissue
 Leaves are flat in shape Leaves are scalelike and needle-like in shape
 Hardwood type Softwood type
 Reproduction rely on animals Reproduction rely on wind
 Reproductive system present in flowers (unisexual or bisexual) Reproductive system present in cones and are unisexual

Angiosperms

The word angiosperm derived from Greek meaning container. As the name suggests the angiosperms are vascular plants, which bears seeds in fruits or mature ovaries. Angiosperm forms flower that carries reproductive organs and fruits. These plants are more adaptive to the terrestrial habitat and can be found widespread on earth, around 250000 species have been identified of this class.

Angiosperm Examples

Fruits trees including Mango, Apple, Banana, Peach, Cherry, Orange, and Pear often shows flowers before they bear fruits and the pollination process is generally carried out by the agents including bees and other animals.
Grains including rice, corn, and wheat are also examples of Angiosperm. In these plants, the pollination process is carried out by the wind. Other examples of Angiosperms include roses, lilies, Broccoli, kale, Petunias, Eggplant, Tomato, Peppers and sugarcane are also included in the diverse group of angiosperms.

Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms are other types of plant that bear seeds directly on sporophylls without covering. As the name suggests the gymnosperms are vascular plants of the Kingdom Plantae which bear naked seeds. There are very fewer species of gymnosperms, few examples of these plants are cypress, Gnetum, pine, spruce, redwood, ginkgo, cycads, juniper, fir, and Welwitschia.

The main reason for being very fewer species is the lack of protection of seeds. The seeds are naked and unprotected when released. They need to get into the ground quickly to take root or they will be damaged by animals, weather conditions or any other factors.