Ethics and Human Interface:

Lecture 12 Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world

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  1. Abundant of ancient Greek moral theories are concerned with the good life for human beings, or, in a word, happiness. Ethical thinking is vital part of human history. It can be religious or theoretical or geared toward practical application. Ethical thinkers can be grouped into ancient thinker, moral thinkers from modern world and moral thinkers of India from ancient to present day (Santosh Ajmera, Nanda Kishore Reddy, 2015).

  2. The ancient philosophers relied on many crucial ideas in establishing universal principles in their philosophical theories. Those comprise the values, joy and the spirit. Philosophers believed virtue was the soul’s good. This argument can be made in other cultures in several respects. Some philosophers argued that being good is not inherently perfect, healthy or prosperous. Alternatively, it is psychological beneficial to consider morality as relating to the mind.

  3. However, in order to explain virtue as a good of the soul, one does not have to hold that the soul is immortal. On the contrary, ancient moral theory enlightens morality in terms that focus on the moral agent. These thinkers are interested in what constitutes, e.g., a just person. They emphasized factors such as the state of mind and character, the set of values, the attitudes to oneself and to others, and the conception of one’s own place in the common life of a community that belong to just persons simply insofar as they are just. A modern might object that this way of proceeding is backwards. Just actions are logically prior to just persons and must be specifiable in advance of any account of what it is to be a just person.
  4. The development of a moral character is a scholarly matter that has been argued for many years. Many philosophers have argued the point of their existence with the puzzlement of this subject. This has allowed the philosophers to approach this topic in several ways. These philosophers are Aristotle (in the Nicomachean Ethics), Confucius (in Analects) and Plato (in Apology, Phaedo). To analyse these philosophers judgementally, it is important to appraise their moral arguments and principles.

  5. A moral character is elucidated as an idea in which one is unique and can be distinguished from others. Perhaps it can amass qualities and traits that are different from various individuals. It suggests to the way individuals act, or how they express themselves. It can be said that it is “human excellence,” or unique thoughts of a character. When the concept of virtue is spoken, this would emphasize the distinctiveness or specialty, but it all involves the combination of qualities that make an individual the way he or she is. Although these philosophers deviate with their arguments, they have some similar views on moral thinking.

The Part of Soul are Divided as Under:

 Calculative – Intellectual Virtue
Rational 
 Appetite – Moral Virtue
Irrational 
 Vegetative – Nutritional Virtue

Practice Question:

  1. Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s Concept of seven sin. (2016)
  2. Analyse John Rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian context. (2016)

3. (a) “Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it may perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles which direct them.” – Napoleon Bonaparte.

(b)Stating examples mention the rulers (i) who have harmed society and country, (ii) who worked for the development of society and country.

(c) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Analyse. (2017)

 4. “Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realize that the state bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality.” Critically analyse this statement. (2016)

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