India after Independence


Post-independence history of India is a topic in the UPSC mains GS paper I. The syllabus simply says, ‘Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country’. It does not specify any sub-heading or topics for the candidates to read about. And, since it has been 70 years since 1947 when the country achieved its freedom from colonial rule, there have been many events that have shaped the way India is progressing onwards.

One of the best books for the study of this topic is Bipan Chandra’s ‘India since Independence’. You can also watch the episodes of the TV show ‘Pradhan Mantri’ aired on the national channel for valuable information in an interesting manner.

Nehruvian Era

  1. Aftermath of partition
  2. Integration of the princely states
  3. Issue of official language (this recurs in most eras)
  4. Reorganisation of states
  5. Tribal consolidation and issues
  6. Foreign policy of Pandit Nehru

Shastri Era

  1. Official language issue
  2. Food shortage
  3. Economic crisis
  4. Indo-Pak war

Indira Gandhi Era

  1. Official language
  2. Split in congress (diminishing of Congress hegemony in regions)
  3. Issue of inflation
  4. Green revolution
  5. Punjab crisis – Operation Blue Star
  6. Land reforms
  7. Bank nationalisation
  8. Emergency
  9. Naxal movement
  10. 1971 war with Pakistan
  11. Janta movement

Rajiv Gandhi Era

  1. Environment (focus on this topic for the first time by the government)
  2. Anti-defection law
  3. Women movements – Dowry Prohibition Act, Shah Bano case
  4. Modernisation of army
  5. Panchayati Raj

Post 1991 Era

The post 1991 era or the era of liberalization era involves the time of V P Singh, Narasimha Rao, etc. You should read about coalition politics, the Mandal Commission, and other issues.


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