3. Practice Questions on Naxalism

Ques 1: What is Maoism?

Answer: Maoism is a form of communism developed by Mao Tse Tung. It is a doctrine to capture State power through a combination of armed insurgency, mass mobilization and strategic alliances. The Maoists also use propaganda and disinformation against State institutions as other components of their insurgency doctrine. Mao called this process, the ‘Protracted Peoples War’, where the emphasis is on ‘military line’ to capture power.

Ques 2: What is the central theme of Maoist ideology?

Answer: The central theme of Maoist ideology is the use of violence and armed insurrection as a means to capture State power. ‘Bearing of arms is non-negotiable’ as per the Maoist insurgency doctrine. The maoist ideology glorifies violence and the ‘Peoples Liberation Guerrilla Army’ (PLGA) cadres are trained specifically in the worst forms of violence to evoke terror among the population under their domination. However, they also use the subterfuge of mobilizing people over issues of purported inadequacies of the existing system, so that they can be indoctrinated to take recourse to violence as the only means of redressal.

Ques 3: Who are the Indian Maoists?

 Answer: The largest and the most violent Maoist formation in India is the Communist Party of India (Maoist). The CPI (Maoist) is an amalgamation of many splinter groups, which culminated in the merger of two largest Maoist groups in 2004; the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), People War and the Maoist Communist Centre of India. The CPI (Maoist) and all its front organizations formations have been included in the list of banned terrorist organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

 Ques 4: What is the party structure of CPI (Maoist)?

 Answer: The party structure at the central level consists of the Central Committee (CC) the Politbureau (PB) and the Central Military Commission (CMC). The following departments are under the direct command of CMC:

  • The Central Technical Committee (CTC).
  • Regional Commands (RCs).
  • Special Action Teams (SATs). (Assassination Squads)
  • Military Intelligence (MI).
  • Publications and Editorial Board of ‘Jung’.
  • Central Military Instructors Team (CMIT).
  • Communications.
  • Tactical Counter Offensive Campaign (TCOC).
  •  Peoples Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA).

 The CPI (Maoist) also have an intelligence set-up known as the Peoples Security Service (PSS). At the State level, there are State Committees, State Military Commission, etc., going down to Zonal Committees, Area Committees, etc.

Ques 5: What is the composition of PLGA?

 Answer: The PLGA consists of three forces:

1. Main Force – a) Companies b) Platoons c) Special Action Teams (Assassination squads) d) Intelligence Units

 2. Secondary Force – a) Special Guerilla Squads b) Local Guerilla Squads c) Platoons d) District/Divisional level action team (Assassination squads)

3. Base Force – a) Peoples Militia b) Gram Rakshak Dal c) Aatma Rakshak Dal d) Self-defense Squads

In areas under their domination, the Maoists set up ‘Revolutionary Peoples Committees’(RPC), the civilian administrative machinery, which carries out extremely rudimentary administrative functions and also provide logistics support to the armed formations

Ques 6: What are Front Organizations?

 Answer. The Front Organizations are the off-shoots of the parent Maoist party, which professes a separate existence to escape legal liability. The Front organizations carry out propaganda/disinformation for the party, recruit ‘professional revolutionaries’ for the underground movement, raise funds for the insurgency, assist the cadres in legal matters and also provide safe houses and shelters to underground cadres. The functionaries of Front Organizations provide intellectual veneer to the inherent violence in the Maoist ideology. In other words, they sanitize the bloodletting, and attempt to make the Maoist world-view palatable to urban audiences and the media. The Front organizations exist in 20 States of India.

Ques 7: Which are the States considered to be LWE affected?

Answer: The States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala are considered LWE affected, although in varying degrees. The CPI(Maoist) are making forays into Southern States of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and planning to link up the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats through these states. The CPI(Maoist) are planning to expand their area of activities and carve out a base for themselves in the tri-junction of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Ques 8: Why do the Maoists kill civilians?

Answer: The Maoists kill civilians for a variety of reasons. First of all, they kill those who do not subscribe to their ideology in areas under their dominationthey are usually branded as ‘police informers’. They also kill people to create a power and governance vacuum in rural areas and the space is filled by them. They also kill the so called ‘class enemies’. All these killings lead to a chain of circumstances wherein the kin of victims can potentially rebel against the Maoists. This leads to further chain of killings of such targets. Finally, it reaches a stage where the ‘power to kill’ in their areas of dominance becomes the sole reason for the lower and the less ‘politically conscious’ cadres to kill innocent people.

Ques 9: Why do they attack schools and other economic infrastructure?

Answer: The Maoists wish to keep the population in their strongholds cut-off from the mainstream milieu. The schools are attacked because education promotes a spirit of enquiry among the local population and also equips children with skills for alternative sources of livelihood. These developments are looked upon by the Maoists as potential threats to their very existence and their outdated ideology. The Maoists also destroy infrastructure like roads and telecom network to keep populations isolated from mainstream India.

Ques 10: Why do CPI (Maoist) have large number of women cadres?

Answer: In States like Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, the Maoists have formed ‘Bal Dastas’ comprising young children. The idea is to brain-wash and indoctrinate young children to Maoist ideology. Most parents do not want to part with their children. But faced with coercion and threats, many poor Adivasi parents prefer to part with the girl child. This inhuman practice by the Maoists is the reason behind large number of young girls/women being present among the Maoist cadres. They are also pushed to the forefront of engagements with the security forces. Inspite of the Maoists professing disapproval of ‘patriarchy’, the number of women in top echelons of their leadership like the PB & CC are negligible.

 Ques 11: What is the policy of Government of India to combat LWE?

Answer: The Government of India believes in a holistic long-term policy in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improving governance and perception management to combat LWE. Most of the security related measures, apart from deployment of CAPFs, are aimed at assisting capacity building by the State forces. On the development front, an Integrated Action Plan (now called Additional Central Assistance to LWE affected districts) covering 88 affected districts aims at providing public infrastructure and services and is under implementation since 2010. Further, an ambitious Road Development Plan has been envisaged for LWE areas. An Empowered Group of Officers closely monitors the progress of flagship schemes. Special emphasis is being laid on the implementation of Forest Rights Act and ensuring entitlement of local communities over Minor Forest Produce

Ques 12: National Policy and Action Plan to address the Left Wing Extremism?

Answer: The National Policy and Action Plan to address LWE problem has been approved by the Union Home Minister and has been sent to States and other stakeholder for its implementation. The Central Government has adopted an integrated approach to address the LWE problem in the areas of security, development, enforcing rights and entitlements of local communities, public perception management and good governance. All stakeholders including the State Governments were consulted before finalizing the National Policy and Action Plan. The views/comments of the State Governments and other stakeholders were incorporated in the National Policy and Action Plan.

Ques 13: What is the level of deployment of Security Forces in LWE affected States?

Answer: At present, more than100 Bns of CAPFs and a number of CoBRA Teams are deployed in LWE affected States. The level of deployment will progressively increase in the coming years. In addition, the States have also deployed their forces in the LWE theatre. The strategy of the Government is aimed at addressing security vacuum in LWE affected areas.

Answer: The CPI (Maoist) have close fraternal ties with many North-East insurgent groups, especially the RPF/PLA of Manipur. Most of these outfits have linkages with external forces inimical to India. The CPI (Maoist) have also frequently expressed their solidarity with the J&K terrorist groups. These ties are part of their ‘Strategic United Front’ against the Indian State. The CPI (Maoist) also have close links with foreign Maoist organizations in Philippines, Turkey, etc. The outfit is also member of the ‘Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia (CCOMPOSA), which includes Nepalese Maoists. The Indo-Bangladesh border is sensitive on count of cross- border human trafficking including movement of suspected terror related elements, FICN dealers & other criminals. Terror elements have in the past used the IndoBangladesh border to cross into India. In such circumstances linkages between left wing radicals & cross border terror related networks cannot be ruled out.

Ques 15: What are the main problems for the Government in combating Maoist insurgency?

Answer: The Maoist insurgency was not viewed as a serious internalsecurity problem for a long time. Over the years, the Maoists have managed to entrench themselves in remote and inaccessible tribal pockets in a few States. Correspondingly, the state institutions of governance also withdrew gradually from such areas, resulting in a security and development vacuum. This suited the Maoists, who have set up some form of rudimentary parallel system of administration in these areas. However, during the last few years, the Maoist insurgency has been recognized as a serious internal security challenge.

It is also seen as a major impediment to the nation building process. Hence, the government initiated multi-pronged measures to address the security and development deficits in these areas. These measures have effectively halted the expansion of Maoist movement to new areas and has also resulted in contraction of their area of dominance. Now, the core areas are being gradually addressed. This is a challenging process, but will ultimately yield the desired results in the long-term and reduce the influence and impact of Maoist insurgency to insignificant levels.

 Ques 16: What can an ordinary citizen do against Left Wing Extremism?

Answer: An ordinary citizen can do the following things;

a) Condemn the violent and brutal atrocities being perpetrated by the CPI (Maoist) and other LWE groups on innocent civilians in any available forum including the social media.

 b) Sensitize fellow-countrymen to the dangers of outdated, failed and deeply flawed Maoist ideology to the nation-building process.

c) Learn to recognize the propaganda war unleashed against the Indian state by the Maoist Front Organizations and Maoist ideologues/sympathizers.

 d) Cherish and nurture the democratic way of life deeply enshrined in our Constitution, as opposed to the totalitarian and oppressive nature of the Maoist ideology and percepts.

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