Conquest of India
Early Resistance to British Rule
Nationalism in India
Indian Freedom Struggle Under Gandhiji
Social Reforms in British India
Partition of India
Other Important Topics

22. The Fight to Secure Press Freedom

  • Hindu and Swedish mitral- G. Subramanian Ayer
  • Kesari and Maratha- B.G. Tilak
  • Amrita Bazaar Patrika – Sisir Kumar Gosh and Motilal Gosh.
  • Sudak- G.K. Gokhle
  • Indian mirror- N.N. Sen.
  • Voice of India- Dada Bhai Nauroji
  • Hindustani and Advocate – G.P. Verma
  • Tribune and Akhbar-i-am in Punjab
  • Indu Prakash, Gyan Parkas, kale, Gujarati-in Bombay
  • Some Parkas, Bangnivasi and Shadavani – in – Bengal
  • The government has enacted section 124 A in 1870 which trades as whoever attempts to excite feelings of disaffection to the government established by law in British India will be transported for we or 3-year imprisonment.
  • Early nationalists combine simplicity with subsidy- simplicity to educate the public and subsidy to convey true meaning without breaking the law.
  • Methods used were Sentiments of loyalty to the queen mix with vitriolic writing.
  • Extend from London based socialist or Irish newspaper.
  • The Vernacular Press Act of 1818 directed only against Indian language newspaper as later critical lord Lytton’s administration in case of famine of 1876-77.
  • Surendra Nath Banerjee, first Indian to go to jail in performance of duty as a journalist. lt criticised Justice Norris of the Calcutta High Court as he ordered an Idol to be brought to court for judging it is age. (1883).
  • Chapekar brothers associated with Rand, the chairman of the plague committee in Poona, and Lt. Ayer on 27 June 1998.
  • Tilak’s defence of Shivaji’s Killing of Afzal Khan was portrayed by the prosecution as an incitement to kill British officials.
  • Tilak refuses to withdraw his statement and apologise but at the same time Tilak condemn the association and declared that he had no intention of preaching disaffection against alien rule.
  • Tilak was booked under section 124A of IPC and sent for 18-month imprisonment in jail.
  • Several cases of bomb attacks on officials occurred at the beginning of 1908.
  • Tilak said ‘Violence, however deplorable, became in evitable’. Once again Tilak was arrested and tried on the charge of sedition. Once again Tilak pleaded not guilty and behaved with exemplary courage.
  • The court awarded him the sentence of six years of transportation.
  • The workers of textile mills and railway workshops went on strike for six days Lenin hailed this as the entrance of the Indian working class on the political stage.
  • Gandhiji was tried in 1922 for the same offence of sedition under the same section 124A for his articles in young India.
  • But Gandhiji pleaded guilty to the charges and took the honour of being associated with Tilak’s name.

Read more:- Freedom of the press in British India