Conquest of India
Early Resistance to British Rule
Nationalism in India
Indian Freedom Struggle Under Gandhiji
Social Reforms in British India
Partition of India
Other Important Topics

Outline of Modern History

UPSC Mains Syllabus

  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country.


British extension:

  • The Carnatic Wars, invasion of Bengal.
  • Mysore and its confrontation to British expansion:
  • The three Anglo-Maratha Wars. Regulating and Pitt’s India Acts.
  • Early composition of the British raj.

Economic Impact of the British Raj

  • land revenue settlements like Zamindari, Ryotwari, Mahalwari;
  • Deindustrialization;
  • Railways and commercialization of agriculture;
  • increase of landless labour.

Cultural encounter and social changes:

  • the inception of western education and modern thoughts.
  • Indian Renaissance, religious and social reform movements;
  • Social reforms events before 1857.
  • Development of Indian middle class;
  • the vernacular press and its effects: the rise of modern literature in Indian languages.

Confrontation to British rule:

  • Early uprisings;
  • The 1857 Revolt-reasons, character, course and result.

Indian Freedom struggle the first stage:

  • Growth of national consciousness; creation of Associations;
  • Establishment of the Indian National Congress and its Moderate stage;
  • Swadeshi Movement;
  • Economic Nationalism;
  • The development of Extremism and the split in Congress;
  • The policy of Divide and Rule;
  • Congress-League Pact of 1916.
  • Minto Morley/Montagu Chelmsford

Gandhian thoughts and techniques of mass mobilization-

  • Civil Disobedience,
  • the Khilafat movement,
  • Non-Cooperation Movement, and Quit India Movement;
  • another strand in the National Movement-Revolutionaries,
  • Subhash Chandra Bose, and the Indian National Army.

Separatist movements in Indian politics-

  • the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League;
  • Partition and Independence;
  • The post -1945 developments.

India independent to 1964.

  • A parliamentary, democratic, secular.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru’s vision,
  • Foreign policy of Non-alignment, Planning and state-controlled industrialization.
  • Agrarian modification.