Chapter – 4 Maps
Globe v/s Maps
- A globe can be useful when we want to study the earth as a whole.
- & The advantage of the globe is that it promotes visual accuracy.
- But, when we want to study only a part of the earth, as about our country, states, districts, towns and villages, it is of little help.
- In such a situation we use maps.
What is a Map?
- A map is a visual representation of an entire area or a part of an area, typically represented on a flat surface.
- Maps attempt to represent various things, like political boundaries, physical features, roads, topography, population, climates, natural resources and economic activities.
- But remember it is impossible to flatten a round shape completely.
What is an Atlas?
- We find that maps are useful to us for various purposes.
- Some maps show a small area and a few facts and some contain as many facts as a big book.
- An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.
- Atlases have traditionally been bound into a book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats.
- Atlases give more information than globe.
Different types of Maps
- PHYSICAL MAPS
- POLITICAL MAPS
- THEMATIC MAPS
- TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
- CLIMATIC MAPS
- ECONOMIC MAPS
What is a Physical Map?
- Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. Are called physical or relief maps.
- The purpose of the physical map is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use etc…
- An example of a physical map is an aerial view of a country showing the forests in green, the mountains in gray, the streams in blue and the oceans in deep blue.
What is a Political Map?
- A political map is a map that shows the political boundaries of particular areas.
- Political maps are designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, the location of major cities, and they usually include significant bodies of water.
- An example of a political map is one that shows the borders of India and the location of the state capitals.
What is a Thematic Map?
- A thematic map is a map that focuses on a specific theme or subject area.
- These maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries or any particular report etc.
- We can take an example of a thematic map of countries affected by Covid-19
Components of Maps
Distance & Scale
- we can say maps are drawn to reduce scales. But this is done very carefully so that the distance between the places is real.
- Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.
- We use small scale map to measure large areas like continents and countries and large scale map to measure small areas like villages or towns.
Directions in Map
- Maps contain a letter on the top right corner ‘N’ with an arrow upwards.
- This arrow shows the north direction. It is called the north line.
- Once you get to North, you can find out other directions easily.
- There are four major directions, North, South, East and West.
- They are called cardinal points(E,W,N,S).
Find a Direction with Compass
- A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions.
- It’s a magnetic needle that always points towards north-south direction.
Symbols of Map
- Symbol is the third important component of a map. Symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.
- With the use of these symbols, maps can be drawn easily and are simple to read.
- Maps have a universal language that can be understood by all.
- There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols.
- These are called conventional symbols.
A sketch Map & A Plan
A rough drawing drawn without any scale is called a sketch map.
A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory.
Plans are detailed and refer to the final draft someone has on something (may also be a drawing). A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.