Lesson 2, Topic 7
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Chapter-7 Our Country India

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The Great India

  • India is home to one of the oldest civilizations in the world. From the traces of hominoid activity discovered in the subcontinent, it is recognized that the area now known as India was inhabited approximately 250,000 years ago.

  • India is part of the continent of Asia. Most of India forms a peninsula. The southeast is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, and the southwest is bordered by the Arabian Sea. The Himalayas – the world’s highest mountain range – rise in the north of the country.

  • India is most famous for its culture and for its unity in diversity pledge. … 

Geographical Stats of India

  • India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km.

  • The north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km.

  • A diversity of landforms you can see here in the form of lofty mountains, the Great  Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the coasts and islands.

Unity In Diversity

  • India as a nation has unity in diversity which is reflected in its traditions. These traditions bind us as one nation.

  • Now with a whopping figure of 135 Cr we are the second most populous country after China.

India on Globe

  • India is located in the northern hemisphere.

  • The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) passes almost halfway through the country.

  • From south to north, main land of India extends between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes.

  • From west to east, India extends between 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes.

Time Zone Setting

  • Great longitudinal extent of about 29° will create a wide differences in local time of places located at two extreme points of India.

  • As you have learnt earlier, the local time changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude.

  • There would be a difference of 29×4 = 116 minutes in local times of east and west.

  • That’s why the local time of longitude of 82°30’E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time.

What’s a Peninsula

  • A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

  • The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water.

INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS

  • India has seven neighbouring countries.

  • They are Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar(Burma)

  • Across the sea to the south, lie our island neighbours — Sri Lanka and Maldives.

  • Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.

POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

  • India is governed by a parliamentary form of government. 

  • There are 28* states and 8* union territories (UT’s) in India as of May 2020.

  • Each state and union territory of India has an administrative, legislative and judicial capital. Every state is ruled by a Chief Minister.

  • New Delhi is the national capital.

PHYSICAL DIVISIONS

  • The Great Himalaya in the North.

  • The Himalayan mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges.

  • The northernmost is the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks are located in this range.

  • Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. Many popular hill stations are situated here.

  • The Shiwalik is the southernmost range.
  • The Northern Indian plains are formed by alluvial deposits of rivers – the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

  • These plains are fertile lands & are very useful for cultivation.
  • With very low vegetation, dry sand and hot atmosphere in the West there lies the Great India desert.

  • In the Southern part of India lies the triangular Peninsular plateau which is uneven in shape.

  • A great number of important hills are found in this region.

  • Aravali hills(one of the oldest ranges of the world)  & The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges in this part of India.

Coasts of India

  • The west-flowing rivers of India Narmada and Tapi flow through these mountain ranges and drain into the Arabian sea.

  • The Western Ghats or Sahyadris border the plateau in the west and the Eastern Ghats provide the eastern boundary.

  • The Western Ghats are almost continuous but the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven.

  • The Coastal plains lie to the West of Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats.

Alluvial deposits

  • These are very fine soils, brought by rivers and deposited in the river basins.

  • It consists of silt, sand, clay, and gravel, as well as much organic matter. 

  • Alluvial deposits are usually most extensive in the lower part of a river’s course and dorm floodplains and deltas.

  • They may form at any point where the river overflows its banks or where the flow of a river is checked.

Two groups of islands

  • Two groups of islands also form part of India. Lakshadweep and The Andaman and the Nicobar Islands

  • Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea.

  • These are coral islands located off the coast of Kerala.

  • The Andaman and the Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.

Coral islands

  • Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called Polyps.

  • When the living polyps die, their skeletons are left. Other poplyps grow on top of the hard skeleton which grows higher and higher, thus forming the coral islands.