9th Class4 Topics
10th Class4 Topics
11th Class9 Topics
Chapter - 1 INDIAN ECONOMY ON THE EVE OF INDEPENDENCE
Chapter - 2 INDIAN ECONOMY 1950-1990
Chapter - 3 Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation: An Appraisal
Chapter - 4 Poverty
Chapter - 5 Human Capital Formation in
Chapter - 6 Rural Development
Chapter- 7 Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues
Chapter - 8 Infrastructure
Chapter - 9 Environment and Sustainable Development
- Chapter - 1 INDIAN ECONOMY ON THE EVE OF INDEPENDENCE
12th Class Book -15 Topics
12th Class Book -26 Topics
Chapter – 1 Development
What Development Promises – Different Peoples, Different Goals
- Different people can have different developmental goals
- What may be development for one may not be development for the other person. It may even be destructive for the other.
Income and Other Goals
People want more income. Money, or material things that one can buy with it, is one factor on which our life depends. However, the quality of our life also depends on non-material things such as equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect for others. For development, people look at a mix of goals. The developmental goals are not only about better income but also about other important things in life.
Different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
How to Compare Different Countries or States?
For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes. Countries with higher income are more developed than others with less income. As different countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person earns. So, we compare the average income of countries.
Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. It is also called per capita income.
Average Income = Total Income of Country / Total Population of Country
In World Development Reports, per capita income is used in classifying countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries.
- Countries with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries. Eg: India.
Income and Other Criteria
When we think of a nation or a region, besides average income, public facilities are equally significant attributes.
Public Facilities: These are the services provided by the government to its citizens. Some of the important public facilities include infrastructure, sanitation, public transport, health care, water, etc.
Sustainability of Development
Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. Scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels, of development are not sustainable. Some of the examples are:
- Overuse of ground water
- Exhaustion of natural resources