Role of industrialization in shaping of the modem cities in England:
The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large numbers of migrants to the textile mills set up in the eighteenth century.
Impact of industrialization and urbanization on the family life in Britain: The family life transformed in terms of function and shape. The family as an institution had broken down as the ties between members of households loosened, and among the working class the institution of marriage tended to break down.
Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for young children on low wages. Women lost their industrial jobs and were forced to withdraw into their homes. The public space became increasingly a male preserve.
Steps taken by the British State to provide housing for working classes between 1919-1939:
Between the two World Wars, the responsibility for housing the working classes was accepted by the British State and a million houses, most of them single family cottages, were built by local authorities. Meanwhile, the city had extended beyond the range where people could walk to work, and the development of suburbs made new forms of mass transport, absolutely necessary, which led ultimately to the setting up of railways.
Steps taken to clean up London:
Benefits of London Tube railway:
The London underground railway partially solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city. The population in the city became more dispersed. Better-planned suburbs and a good railway network enabled large numbers to live outside Central London and travel to work.
Air pollution—nuisance for the Londoners:
The congestion in the 19th century industrial city of London led a yearning for clean country air. Because of widespread use of coal in homes and industries, air pollution led to bad tempers, smoke-related illnesses and dirty clothes. Demands were made for new ‘lungs’ for the city.
Sources of entertainment for the common people of London:
Transformation of Bombay into an industrial city:
At first, Bombay was the major outlet for cotton textiles from Gujarat. Later, in the 19th century, the city functioned as a port through which large quantities of raw materials, such as cotton and opium, would pass. Gradually, it also became an important administrative centre in Western India, and then, by the end of the 19th century, a major industrial centre. Bombay became the capital of the Bombay Presidency in 1819 after the Maratha defeat in the Anglo-Maratha war. With the growth of trade in cotton and opium, large communities of traders and bankers as well as artisans and shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay. The establishment of textile mills led to a fresh surge in migration. Bombay had its first cotton textile mill established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills with about 1,46,000 workers.
‘Chawls of Bombay’:
The working people who migrated from various parts lived in thickly populated Chawls. Chawls are multi-storeyed structures built in the native parts of the town. Each Chawl was divided into smaller one room tenements which had no private toilets. The homes being small, streets and neighborhoods were used for a variety of activities such as working, washing, sleeping and various types of leisure activities. The magicians, monkey players and acrobats used to regularly perform their act in an open space in the middle of four Chawls. Liquor shops and akharas came up in any empty spot.
Rent Act (Bombay):
The Rent Act was passed in Mumbai (Bombay) in the year 1918.
To solve the problem of housing, the Rent Act was passed with the aim of keeping the rents reasonable. It had the opposite effect of producing a severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew houses from the market.
Bombay—a city of dreams:
Despite massive overcrowding and difficult living conditions, Bombay (Mumbai) appears to many as mayanagari—a city of dreams.
Land reclamation process in Bombay:
Causes of air-pollution in Calcutta:
City development everywhere occurred at the expense of ecology and environment. Kolkata (Calcutta) was also not an exception.