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Polity NCERT

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Lesson 2, Topic 6
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Chapter – 6 Rural Administration

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Quarrel in the Village: Mohan noticed that Raghu had shifted the bund
but Raghu refused to accept and instead he beats Mohan. Mohan’s
neighbours helped him and he was provided first aid.

Gram Sabha: The Panchayati Raj, through the Gram Sabha, can solve
land dispute problems, instead of taking the issues to the police station.

Work at the Police Station: In the police station, Mohan met the Station
House Officer and said that he wanted to give the complaint in writing. At
first, the S.H.O. refused, but later, he agreed that he would register the
case. The S.H.O promised that he would send a constable to investigate the incidence.

Patwari’s Duties: They include conducting land surveys, field supervision
and reporting the crime to the police. The role of the Patwari is important
in an investigation. The record of the Patwari helps the police to find out
which person has extended his bund from the original boundary.

Revenue Department: Keeping track of all these is the work of the
revenue department. Senior people in this department supervise the
Patwari’s work.

Local Administration: All the States of India are divided into districts.
For managing matters relating to land, these districts are further subdivided. These sub-divisions of a district are known by different names
such as Tehsil, Taluka, etc.

At the head is the District Collector and under him are the Revenue Officers, also known as the Tehsildars. Tehsildars have to hear disputes and supervise the work of the Patwari and ensure that records are properly
kept and land revenue is collected. They make sure that farmers get a copy of their land records. Students can obtain their caste certificates, etc from
them as well.

A New Law: The Hindu Succession Amendment Act (2005) came into
force from September 2005. The Government of India has issued a
notification to this effect.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act (2005): This Act has been passed to
remove gender discriminatory provisions in the Hindu Succession Act,
1956 and gives the following rights to daughters under Section 6-
The daughter of coparcener
(joint heir) by birth becomes a coparcener by
right in the same manner as the son. The daughter has the same rights in
the coparcener property as she would have had if she had been a son. In
the new law, sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share of
the land.

Every police station has an area that comes under its control. All persons
in that area can report cases or inform the police about any occurrence like theft, accident, fight, etc.

The police of that area then inquire, investigate and take action. Thus, the
police maintain law and order in the area.

Land disputes are common features of the villages. Hence, it is essential to
maintain records so that conflicts may be avoided. Here, comes the role of
the Patwari.

Patwari is the person whose main task is to measure land and keep land
records. He also updates these records.

Each Patwari is responsible for a group of villages.

The Patwari is also responsible for organising the collection of land
revenue from the farmers and providing information to the government
about the crops grown in this area.

The revenue department of the government plays a major role in this
direction. Senior people in this department supervise the Patwari’s work.

For managing matters relating to land, districts are sub-divided, known as sub-divisions.

These sub-divisions of a district are known by different names such as
tehsil, taluka, etc.

The District Collector is at the head. The revenue officers known as
Tehsildars work under him.

Hindu Succession Amendment Act was passed in 2005. According to this
Act sons, daughters and their mothers can get an equal share in the land.

Police Station: It is a place where people register their complaints. Every
police station has an area that comes under its control. All persons in that
area can report cases or inform the police about any theft, accident, fight, injury or illegal occurrence etc.

S.H.O: Station House Officer who is the person-in-charge of the police
station.

Patwari: One whose job is to measure land and keep land records.

Tehsildar: He is the revenue officer working under the District Collector.

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