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Polity NCERT

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Lesson 2, Topic 8
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Chapter – 8 Rural Livelihoods

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Different Occupations: People in this village are involved in different
professions such as blacksmiths, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers,
mechanics, shopkeepers and traders.

Shops: Kalpattu village has a variety of small shops such as tea-shops,
grocery stores, barber shops, cloth shops, tailor shops, fertilizers and seed

Life of a Woman Farmer: The woman, Thulasi works in farmland of
Ramalingam and does various work like transplanting paddy, weeding and
harvesting. She earns 40 rupees daily. She also does household tasks like
cooking, cleaning and washing clothes.

Being in Debt: Farmers borrow money to fulfil the basic needs of the
farming land. Sometimes, they are unable to return the loan due to the
failure of monsoon, which results in debt and finally the major cause of

Farmers: In Kalpattu village, there are labourers and farmers. All of them
depend on farming. Big farmers cultivate their land and sell their products
in the market. Some people in the village depend upon a forest, animal
husbandry, dairy produce, fishing, etc.

Sources of Livelihood: Farming and collection of mahua, tendu leaves,
honey, etc. from the forest are the important sources of livelihood.

Rural Livelihood: People in rural areas earn their living in various ways.
They undertake in farming or non¬farming activities. However, some
people do not find work to keep them employed throughout the year.

Pudupet: People earn their living by fishing in the sea in this area.
Catamarans (fishing boats) are used for fishing. They return to the coast
with their catch to sell in the market. Fishermen usually take loans from
banks to purchase catamarans, nets and engines.

There are different ways in which people earn their living in villages.

Vill&ge people are engaged in both farm activities and non-farm works,
such as making utensils, baskets etc.

There are agricultural laborers as well as big farmers.

Working on farms involves operations such as preparing the land, sowing,
weeding and harvesting of crops.

In India, nearly two out of every five rural families are agricultural
labourer families.

Working on farms involves operations such as preparing the land, sowing,
weeding and harvesting of crops.

The members of these families usually work on other people’s fields to
earn a living.

In India, 80 per cent of farmers belongs to this group. Only 20 per cent of
India’s farmers are well-off.

Many people in rural areas depend upon collection from the forest, animal
husbandry, dairy produce, fishing etc

Rural livelihoods: Different ways of earning living in rural areas.

Pesticide: A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects.

Migration: The movement of a large number of people from one place to
another to find jobs.

Harvest: The act of cutting and gathering crops.

Terrace Farming: This is a type of farming in which the land on a hill
slope is made into flat plots and carved out in steps. The sides of each plot
are raised in order to retain water. This allows water to stand in the field,
which is suitable for rice cultivation