21. Awareness in the fields of Robotics

The robotics field is the result of scientific research and development. Robotics creates motor-driven, human-created machines which can be operated alone and whose action can be affected by scripting, modelling, preparing, meaning, actuating and regulated. A robot is a multifunctional Machiavelli reprogrammable built to transfer objects, parts, equipment or different tools by dynamic controlled movements in order for certain tasks to be accomplished (Robot Institute of America 1979).

Robotics deals primarily with the design, construction, operation and use of robots for their control, sensory and information handling combined with its computer systems. Doctrines from electronics engineering, mechanical engineering and computer science come together to build a certain robotic system. Robots with the perfect image of the man in the human mind are created by humans. Robots are really beneficial for humans as they go across harmful terrain, carry out tracking operations and conduct remote surgery worldwide. A robot is composed of sensors, a brain, and communication capability. The robot includes a microprocessor.

History of Robots

Robotics was developed in the 20th century but in ancient times there was the presence of a history of the automation.  The ancient Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria produced two texts, Pneumatica and Automata, which confirm the existence of hundreds of different kinds of ‘wonder’ moving machines. Robotics has made great advances during the 20th and 21st centuries, to include machines that can assemble other machines and even robots that can be fallacious to man.

The phrase robot was invented by a Czech novelist, Karel Capek in a 1920. Robotics was first used in Runaround, a short story published in 1942, by Isaac Asimov. Issac Asimov introduced his laws of robots and Eric Elenberger, who is considered as the father of robotics, introduced real-time robots to the world. Fundamentally, a robot is a re-programmable machine that is capable of movement in the accomplishment of a task. Robots use special coding that differentiates them from other machines and machine tools. Robots have applications in many industries due to their robust resistance capabilities and accuracy function.

Attributes of robotic technology: 

  1. It is a specialized machine tools with flexibility that distinguishes them from fixed-purpose automation.

  2. Robot technology is basically a mechanical arm that is bolted to the Floor, a machine, the ceiling, or, in some cases the wall Fitted with its mechanical hand, and taught to do Repetitive task in a controlled, ordered environment.

  3. It has ability to move mechanical arm to perform work.

  4. Robot interface with their work environment once a Mechanical hand has been attached to the robot’s tool mounting Plate.

Types of robot: 

  1. Mobile robots
  2. Rolling robots
  3. Walking robots
  4. Stationary Robots
  5. Autonomous Robots
  6. Remote-control Robots

Typical knowledgebase for the design and operation of robotics systems: 

  • Dynamic system modelling and analysis
  • Feedback control
  • Sensors and signal conditioning
  • Actuators (muscles) and power electronics
  • Hardware/computer interfacing
  • Computer programming

Major component of robot: 

  1. The manipulator, which is the robot’s support comprises of Segments jointed together with axes capable of motion in various directions allowing the robot to perform work.

  2. The end effector which is a gripper tool, a special device, or Fixture attached to the robot’s arm, actually performs the Work.

  3. Power supply provides and regulates the energy that is converted to motion by the robot actuator, and it may be either electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic.

  4. The controller initiates, terminates, and coordinates the Motion of sequences of a robot. Also it accepts the necessary Inputs to the robot and provides the outputs to interface with the outside world.
Robotics Awareness

For workers, industries and countries, robotics are really useful. Industrial robotics will better integrate them and boost the quality of life by liberating workers from dusty, dull, hazardous and hard labor. It is a fact that robots can cause unemployment through the replacement of human resources, but robot managers, salesmen and engineers, programmers and screens also create jobs.

The industrial advantages of robots include improved management and productivity control and consistently high quality products. Industrial robotics can operate actively at night without any lack of efficiency on an production line. Then, the costs of manufactured goods can be reduced substantially. Such technological benefits allow nations to boost their global economic standing, effectively use robotics in their industries.

Robotics in India: India understands the importance of robotics in numerous fields. This will also open up the possibilities in the field of Research activities, Manufacturing, Academia, Space technology, Defence industries, Medical, and Agriculture industry. 
Table: timeline vision of robotics in India (Report of National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP), 2030).

  • By 2013-2014 – Agricultural robots
  • By 2013 – 2017 – Robots that care for Elderly
  • By 2013-2020 – Nano Robots
  • By 2015 – To have one-third of its fighting capacity provided by Robots
  • By 2017 – Medical Robots performing low invasive surgery
  • By 2017-2019 – Household Robots
  • By 2035 – To have first completely autonomous Robot soldiers on the battlefield

Prospects in Robotics in India: Robotics offers numerous opportunities for both entrepreneurs and students. Industries across a range of sectors such as automotive, atomic energy, defence, space, metals, textiles and manufacturing use Robotic technologies very effusively. Robots are required everywhere to improve productivity. They are also being used in operation theatres and rehabilitation centres to enhance the quality of life. Developed countries like Japan and America are using robots for many functions.

Challenges of robotics in India: In India, the Robotics field also pose many challenges. The major issue in using robotics for various functions in India is the high cost of adoption, availability of skilled talent and procurement of hardware components. As Robotics is a multidisciplinary field, acquiring and retaining quality talent is a major issue.

Industrial Applications of Robots: For the industrial sector, modern robots are very useful. In different locations, for example, the automotive and manufacturing industries, industrial robots are found. Machining process pieces are cut and shaped, equipment installed and pieces are examined. Robot works on loading bricks, die-cast, drill, fix, forge, create glass, drag, heat treatment, system loading/ unloading machines, manage pieces, measurements, track radiation, running nuts, sorting items, clean pieces and profile artefacts.

Robots in Medicine: Robots play a significant role in the medical field, which needs incredible accuracy and flexibility and a very low margin of error. The key fields in medical robotics are medicine. Because robots may conduct large operations with only minor incisions, there are several benefits to patients. Robots are used by opening the patient’s chest of heart surgery. In prosthetics, a long-standing aim of the robotics field is to mechanically replace damaged limbs and structures able to communicate with the human organic system. Robotic devices can also help people with severe movement constraints, often permitting at least some cap.

Rehabilitation Robots can provide exercise platforms to help restore limb function and can monitor the condition of patients undergoing rehabilitation from the effects of injuries, stroke or other brain or nerve damage.

Application of Robots in Space: Robots can perform well in space arena where it is dangerous for humans to get to space, to be in space and to return from space. But is a major challenge for experts or engineers to fit robots operating reliably. It is easy for manipulator to restore parts, to fix the space ship and to direct the wholes space shuttle.

Underwater Robots: Robotic underwater travellers are used to reconnoitre and gather information about many aspects of marine environment. For example, robots are used for underwater cable inspection, and for telecommunications.

Application of Robots in Military and Security: Military robots are self-directed or remote-controlled devices designed for military applications. As it is well established that military is a dangerous job, but some of the tasks that soldiers are required to do are more dangerous than others. Walking through minefields, deactivating unexploded bombs or clearing out hostile buildings are some of the most dangerous tasks a person is asked to perform in the line of duty. In military field, robots are also used to investigate hazardous and dangerous environments. In these environments robots are used for firefighting, for entering into risky areas and for removing of injured persons in natural disasters. Other major applications of robots in security is for inspection and search for dangerous materials. In this, robots prevent the harms to humans operating it in case of something explodes during the inspection. Robots are also used during war for mine removal and entering into risky areas where robots use guns as their manipulators.

Domestic robots: The domestic or household robot are available in different types and serves various purposes such as robotic movers, robotic vacuum cleaners, robotic pool cleaners, toys, and floor washing robots. Domestic robots of these types must be setup properly to perform their jobs.

Humanoid robots: A humanoid robot is a robot which has resemblance like human and it is based on that of the human body, allowing interaction with made-for-human tools or environments. In general, humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs, although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up.

To summarize, The robot has electronic, electrical or mechanical units, a programmable, self-regulated system. It’s a machine that functions like a human being. Although the concept of a robot is quite old, it was explored in the 1920s, robotic technology is seen in many areas. It offers major potential for improving the rescue workers’ dilemma by decreasing exposure to dangerous conditions. The mine can be explored by robotics and valuable information provided to the teams to help with search and rescue planning and implementation. Robot technology has been known to be an important science that incorporates fundamental tools and computer applications.

Practice question:

  1. Illustrate the use of medical robots in the wake of corona virus outbreak.