Health, Education, Human Resources

Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

Right to Health and Indian Constitution

Right to health is not included directly in as a fundamental right in the Indian Constitution. The Constitution maker imposed this duty on state to ensure social and economic justice. Part four of Indian constitution which is DPSP imposed duty on States. If we only see those provisions then we find that some provisions of them has directly or indirectly related with public health. The Constitution of India not provides for the right to health as a fundamental right.

The Constitution directs the state to take measures to improve the condition of heaith care of the people. Thus the preamble to the Constitution of India, inter alia, seeks to secure for all its citizens justice-social and economic. It provides a framework for the achievement of the objectives laid down in the preamble. The preamble has been amplified and elaborated in the Directive Principles of State policy.

DPSP and Health

Article 38 of Indian Constitution imposes liability on State that states will secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people but without public health we cannot achieve it. It means without public health welfare of people is impossible. Article 39(e) related with workers to protect their health. Article 41 imposed duty on State to public assistance basically for those who are sick and disable. Article 42 makes provision to protect the health of infant and mother by maternity benefit.

In’the-lndia the Directive Principle of State Policy under the Article 47 considers it the primary duty of the state to improve public health, securing of justice, human condition of works, extension of sickness, old age, disablement and maternity benefits and also contemplated. Further, State’s duty includes prohibition of consumption of intoxicating drinking and drugs are injurious to health. Article 48A ensures that State shall Endeavour to protect and impose the pollution free environment for good health.

Panchayat, Municipality and Health

Not only the State, Panchayat and Municipalities are also liable to improve and protect public health. Article 243G says “State that the legislature of a state may endow the panchayats with necessary power and authority in relation to matters listed in the eleventh Schedule”.

Fundamental Rights and Health

The DPSP are only the directives to the State. These are non-justifiable. No person can claim for Non-fulfilling-these directives. But the Supreme Court has brought the right to health under the preview of Article 21. In 1995, the Supreme Court held that right to health and medical care is a fundamental right covered by Article 21 since health in­essential for making the life of workmen meaningful and purposeful and compatible with personaldignity. The state has an obligation under Article 21 to safeguard the right to life of every person, preservation of human life being of paramount importance. The Supreme Court has in the case of Parmanand Katra vs Union of India, held that whether the patient be an innocent person or be a criminal liable to punishment under the law, it is the obligation of those who are in charge of the health of the community to preserve life so that innocent may be protected and the guilty may be punished.

The Supreme Court, while examining the issue of the constitutional right to health care under Art 21,-Art 41 and Art 47 of the Constitution of India in State of Punjab v/s Ram Lubhaya Bagga, The Supreme Court, in Paschim Banga Khet Mazdoor Samity & others v/s State of West Bengal & others, while widening the scope of art 21 and the government’s responsibility to provide medical aid to every person in the country, held that in a welfare state, the primary duty of the government is to secure the welfare of the people

About the Indian Education System

A major shift in the education system can be observed since the pre and post-British rule till today in India. Initially, children were educated in Gurukuls which was later modified and the modern education system was introduced. 

After India became independent, the constitution committed six fundamental rights, of which one was the Right to Education. It allowed free education for every child up between the age of 6 and 14 years. 

The education system is mainly divided into pre-primary, primary, elementary and secondary education, which is followed by higher studies. 

However, there are many drawbacks and loopholes in this system which if curbed can work for the overall development of the country. 

Current Issues in Education in India

Discussed below are the current issues with the Education system in India:

  • Expenditure on education – More funds should be allotted for the development of the education system in India. In the past few years, many beneficial steps have been taken in this direction and if the same is continued India may soon be overcome the current challenges
  • Gross enrolment pattern as followed by the UN must also be adapted by India
  • Capacity utilisation – The world now needs creative minds and the Government must encourage schools to boost the students and utilise their capacities to the max and not let their ideas go unheard
  • Infrastructure facilities – Better infrastructure must be provided especially in Government schools. Since Government is now focussing on digital education, they must undertake steps to provide all necessary facilities in the Government schools and rural areas as well
  • PPP model – Well-designed PPPs can create models of innovation for the school system in India. Thus the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model must be taken into consideration
  • Student-teacher ratio – The number of students in search of proper education is way more in comparison to the teachers and faculty available. Thus, qualified teachers must be appointed to impart knowledge to the future of the country
  • Accreditation and branding – quality standards
  • Students studying abroad – There are many students who choose to study abroad because of these issues in the Indian education system. The concerned authorities must work on them and students must also choose to stay, learn in India and empower the country through their knowledge

Indian Education System Problems and Solutions

There are a few simple solutions which can help in overcoming the problems with the India Education System:

  • Innovations required – India is moving towards digital education. This will help in budding the innovative minds of students and the youth of the country. This will bring a transformation in the Indian education system and the authorities and Government must encourage and boost the young minds to focus on overall development rather than just the book-learning
  • Quality of education – There is a major difference in the quality of education being provided in the rural and urban areas of the country. Steps must be taken to standardize the quality of education across India so that everyone can get equal and unbiased knowledge and opportunities to grow
  • Making education affordable – There are Government schools and educational Institutions which are affordable but lack in terms of infrastructure and quality. On the other hand, there are various private education institutions which demand high fees and have better infrastructure and equipment to study. This disparity must be worked upon and the Government must make education affordable and accessible for all 

Schemes & Campaigns to Boost Education System in India

Given below is a list of Government schemes introduced to enhance the education system in India:

  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan – Launched in 2001 with an aim to promote ‘Education for All’, strengthening the existing infrastructure of schools and construction of new schools. To know in details about the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA).
  • National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level – It is a focused intervention of Government of India, to reach the “Hardest to Reach” girls, especially those not in school.
  • Mid Day Meal Scheme – It is one meal that is provided to all children enrolled in government schools, government-aided schools, local body schools, special training centres (STC), madrasas and maktabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). Visit the Mid Day Meal Scheme page to know more
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan – It is a flagship scheme aiming at enhancing secondary education and increasing the enrolment rate by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of every home.
  • Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes – The scheme would facilitate education of minorities by augmenting and strengthening school infrastructure in Minority Institutions in order to expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – The scheme to promote girl child education in India. Visit the Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana page to know more about the BBBP campaign

Major Issues in the Indian Education System

What are some of the problems that beset the Indian Education System?

India is a country with more than one billion people, and just one-third of them can read. Rapidly growing size of population, shortages of teachers, books, and basic facilities, and insufficient public funds to cover education costs are some of the nation’s toughest challenges.

How effective is the Indian Education System?

India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group.

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