Animal Reproduction
Animal Nutrition
Animal Physiology
Animal Genetics & Breeding
Livestock production management
6. Extension
Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene
LPT Milk
Animal Diseases and Surgery
UPSC CSE Mains Test Series

Syllabus and Previous Years Questions of Animal Nutrition

Syllabus of UPSC CSE of Animal Nutrition

1. Animal Nutrition

1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.

1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool and meat production.

1.3 Major and trace minerals – Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.

1.4 Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts.

1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and feed processing. Anti – nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality control. Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.

1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.

1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.

1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.

Previous Years Questions of Animal Nutrition


  1. Describe the methods to determine the energy requirements for maintenance in adult animals.
  2. Describe different methods of hay-making. What are the nutrient losses occurred during hay making and how to prevent these loses?
  3. Describe the strategies for feeding of high-yielding dairy animals different stages of lactation.
  4. Explain the care and managemental practices to be taken up during pregnancy and farrowing in sow. What care needs to be taken to improve survival rate of piglets born?
  5. Explain the factors affecting utilization of non-protecting nitrogen (NPN) compounds in ruminants’ diet.
  6. Classify the minerals and explain the role of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in bone formation.
  7. Write short notes on the following:
  8. Biological value
  9. Feeding of breeding boars
  10. Essential Amino Acids Index (EAAI)
  11. Use of Indicators for digestibility determination


  1. Describe different types of calorimetry.
  2. Write BIS specification of nutrient requirements for chicken.
  3. Differentiate between the following:
    • Probiotics and Prebiotics
    • Protein efficiency ratio and Net protein utilization
    • Green fodder and Straws
    • Metabolic faecal nitrogen and Endogenous urinary nitrogen
  4. Write in brief on the following:
    • Nutrient-parasite interrelationship
    • The role of vitamin D in calcium absorption
    • Feeding schedule for breeding bulls
  5. Write the chemical nature, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms of vitamin A in animals.
  6. Define balanced ration. Write desirable characteristics of ration.
  7. Discuss the factors affecting digestibility of feeds.
  8. Mention different metalloenzymes and their functions in livestock.
  9. Discuss different methods of oestrus detection in animals.


  1. How energy retention in animal body is measured by Carbon-Nitrogen balance study? How it differs from that of comparative slaughter method?
  2. Discuss in brief about the various systems of expressing the energy value of feeds and energy requirements in swine.
  3. Write in brief on the following:
  4. Feeding of lambs for mutton production.
  5. Feeding schedule of calves from birth to 3 months age.
  6. Mucosal block theory of Iron absorption.
  7. Role of Vitamin A in vision.
  8. Differentiate between the following:
  9. Basal metabolism and Fasting metabolism.
  10. Curled-toe-paralysis and polyneuritis.
  11. Grass staggers and Blind Staggers.
  12. Net protein utilization and net protein value.
  13. Flushing and steaming-up.
  14. What are the common sources of calcium and phosphorus? How high intake of calcium affects the utilization of other minerals? Explain, how ‘Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism’ develops in animals?
  15. What points will you consider while formulating a ration for a dairy buffalo? A farmer gives 20 kg green maize (25% DM, 1.2% DCP and 16% TDN), 5 kg wheat straw (90% DM, 0% DCP and 40% TDN) and 4 kg concentrate mixture (90% DM, 14% DCP and 68% TDN) daily to a lactating buffalo weighing 450 kg and yielding 10  kg milk with 7% fat during her first lactation. The maintenance requirements in 280 kg DCP and 3.4 kg TDN, whereas the requirement for 1 kg milk production in 63 g DCP and 460 g TDN. Indicate the deficiency or excess of nutrients in terms of DCP and TDN.
  16. How will you develop a practical and economic ration for commercial broiler production?


  1. Many non-nutritive substances are often being mixed in animal and poultry ration as growth-promoters. Discuss the uses and abuses of these growth-promoters.
  2. Why are broilers and layers fed different types of rations? What are the similarities and dissimilarities in these two rations?
  3. How will you design an economic ration of pigs for production of lean meat? Explain.
  4. What is silage? Discuss in brief about the anti-nutritional factors commonly found in animal feeds.
  5. Discuss at least two methods that are utilized in formulating animal rations.
  6. Give the schematic representation of partitioning of feed energy in the body lactating cows.


  1. Discuss the methods for estimation of protein requirements for maintenance of bullocks.
  2. Differentiate between the following:

              (i) Starch equivalent and Net energy

              (ii) Crude protein and True protein

              (iii) Cellulose and Starch

              (iv) Digestible energy and Metabolizable energy

              (v) Concentrates and Roughages

3. A buffalo is grazing on a pasture. How can the feed intake of that buffalo be predicted?

4. Compute a ration for a dairy cow weighing 400 kg and yielding 10 kg of milk with 4% fat from wheat straw (0% DCP and 40% TDN), green berseem (2% DCP and 12% TDN) limited to 15 kg and concentrate mixture (12% DCP and 70% TDN). The maintenance requirement is 250 g DCP and 3 kg TDN, whereas the requirement for 1 kg milk production is 45 g DCP and 300 g TDN.

5. Guidelines to feed high yielder cows

6. What feeding practices are suggested for adult female pigs?


  1. Why Vitamin-A is important for animal body? What are the deficiency symptoms of Vit-A in animals?
  2. Define silage. Discuss the important methods of preparing silage. What are the important crops used for silage making?
  3. Define probiotics. Enlist important micro-organisms which are used as probiotics and also discuss the characteristics of good probiotics.

4. Differentiate between the following:

  • Crude Protein Vs. Digestible Crude Protein
  • Water soluble vitamin Vs. Fat soluble vitamins
  • Roughage Vs. Concentrates
  • Maintenance ration Vs. Production ration
  • Metabolic energy Vs. Net energy.

5. Explain the mode of feeding and management practices of young piglets particularly for piglet anaemia and piglet diarrhoea.


  1. Discuss the nutrient requirements of poultry for Meat and Egg production.
  2. Discuss processing methods for roughage to improve its utilization by animals.
  3. Discuss complete feeding system for dairy farms.
  4. What do you understand by feed supplements and feed additives? Describe various groups of additives used in animal feed.
  5. What is NPN compound? Write the mechanism of NPN utilization in ruminants.