Animal Reproduction
Animal Nutrition
Animal Physiology
4. Animal Genetics & Breeding
5. Livestock production management (LPM)
6. Extension

Lecture 1: Syllabus and Previous Years Question Papers of AGB


4. Genetics and Animal Breeding:

1. History of animal genetics, Mitosis, and Meiosis, Mendelian inheritance, deviations to Mendelian genetics, Expression of genes

Linkage and crossing over, Sex determination, sex influenced and sex-limited characters

Blood groups and polymorphism, Chromosome aberrations, Cytoplasmic inheritance.

Gene and its structure, DNA as a genetic material, Genetic code and protein synthesis.

Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations, and mutation rate. Trans-genesis.

2. Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits

Hardy Weinberg Law, Population Vs individual, Gene and genotypic frequency

Forces changing gene frequency, Random drift and small populations, Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding.

Effective population size, Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation, Partitioning of variation;

Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction, the role of multiple measurements, Resemblance between relatives.

3. Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestock and Poultry.

Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates

Aids to selection and their relative merits, Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection,

Progeny testing, Methods of selection, Construction of selection indices and their uses,

Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response,

Inbreeding, outbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds, Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production.

Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.

Previous years papers of Animal Genetics


  1. Explain the inheritance of sex-limited characters in cattle & poultry.
  2. Differentiate between Mitosis & Meiosis.
  3. What do you understand by Hardy Weinberg Law? Give the properties & uses of Hardy-Weinberg law. What Prerequisites are necessary for the maintenance of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in a population?
  4. Describe Gene mutations. Give the classification of gene mutation based on its location and effect. Write the salient features of gene mutations.
  5. Describe various systems of animal breeding. Explain how Grading-up differs from cross-breeding.
  6. What is meant by chromosomal aberration? classify it. Discuss about translocation and Karyotyping.
  7. Write in brief about the ‘Rashtriya Gokul Mission’ and its objectives.


  1. Explain recombinant DNA technology along with its uses.
  2. Explain various sources of variation in the population. Write down the implications of variation (component wise).
  3. Explain the experiences of crossbreeding programme of dairy cattle in India.
  4. What is breeding efficiency and how can it be measured?
  5. What is heritability? Explain the salient features of heritability along with its uses.


  1. Write about the structure and functions of ribosomal RNA.
  2. Discuss about modified Mendelian ratio in monohybrid cross with examples.
  3. Write about the advantages and disadvantages of DNA vaccines
  4. Explain sex-linked inheritance and sex-influenced inheritance with suitable example.
  5. How do systematic processes affect the gene and genotype frequency? Explain.
  6. Enumerate the theories of sex determination and explain genic balance theory.
  7. Write in detail about the preparation of metaphase chromosome spread through peripheral blood leucocyte culture for chromosome analysis.
  8. Write in detail about the components of variance.


  1. Importance of gene mutations in farm animals.
  2. Production of transgenic animals.
  3. What are two general environments in which the genes express themselves? Discuss in detail the effects of some specific environmental factors on gene expression.
  4. How will you assess that a quantitative trait is affected by additive or non-additive gene action or both? Discuss the methods of selection for simultaneous improvement of multi-traits.
  5. How the genetic constitution of a population can be described? Discuss the possible causes responsible for the change in genetic properties of a population.
  6. What is the basis of computing inbreeding coefficient by coancestry? Describe the basic coancestry formulae used in estimating the inbreeding coefficient of an individual.


  1. How is recombinant DNA technology influencing the livestock production? Explain.
  2. How do somatic and green cells divide? What is role of division processes in maintaining the phenotype of individual and its progeny? Outline the division process diagrammatically.
  3. What is the molecular basis of Mendelian genetics? What are the reasons for variations in observed and in theoretical ratios of the segregating population?
  4. What do you understand by ‘genetic code’? Discuss the important features of genetic code.
  5. Define inbreeding coefficient and write its utility. What are the consequences of inbreeding depression in large and small herds?
  6. What is the importance of progeny testing? Compare the traditional and modern methods of progeny testing in cattle.
  7. Why is Hardy-Weinberg law considered as the backbone of population genetics? What are the different factors that lead to a drift from Hardy-Weinberg law?


  1. Explain following ( in about 150 words each) :

(a) Chromosomal aberrations

(b) Traits of economic importance

(c) Sib selection

2. Write about the preliminary idea of heritability. Give different methods of estimation and write how these estimates are utilized in formation of breeding plans/selection plans.

3. How can the efficiency of progeny testing programme be improved?

4. Discuss genetic and phenotypic effects of inbreeding.

5. What are combining abilities? Give diagrammatic plan for utilizing combining ability.


  1. Selection of breeding bulls is an important aspect inbreeding. Discuss the criteria for selection.
  2. What are important genetic parameters? Explain the role of heritability in animal breeding along with its advantages
  3. What do you mean by segregation distortion? Explain its importance in mice?
  4. How qualitative traits differ from quantitative traits? Explain with examples.
  5. Explain how the changes of gene frequencies under selection be calculated at different level of dominance.
  6. Define selection. Enumerate the factors which are responsible for choosing traits for selection. Discuss in brief.
  7. Variation is the raw material of organic evolution – Defend the statement.
  8. What is inbreeding? How do you produce inbred lines? How can inbred lines be exploited for commercial production? Explain.
  9. Explain the following in brief:-

(a) In two way crossbreeding, a higher degree of heterosis is obtained in F1 generation.

(b) Describe the estimates of heritability by full sib method along with its merit & demerits.

10. Transfer technology 2 questions asked !!


  1. Describe factors determining the efficiency of traits of economic importance in dairy animals.
  2. Define heritability. Define any one method used for its estimation. How are estimates useful in animal breeding?
  3. Derive the formulae for estimation of genotypic values and breeding values in a single locus 2 allele case. Write the partitioning of variation and explain how the components of variance are affected by the degree of dominance.
  4. Explain the law of independent assortment given by Mendel with suitable examples taking dihybrid cross. Describe briefly the deviation from mendelian genetics.
  5. Discuss the role of multiple measurements in animal breeding.
  6. Explain ‘inbreeding’? Discuss disadvantages of inbreeding.
  7. Discuss Progeny testing. What precautions are needed for an effective progeny testing programme and why?
  8. Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative traits. Derive the formulae for explaining the change of gene frequency due to immigration, recurrent mutation, and selection recessive homozygotes when there is complete dominance.


  1. ”The breeding value of a bull is estimated by progeny testing.” Explain the statement. Enumerate the three principal methods used in estimation of sires on the basis of progeny testing.
  2. Discuss the causes of spontaneous and induced mutation. What significance do they carry from the perspective of health of a herd?
  3. Discuss the relative contributions of genotype and environment on the animal phenotype.
  4. ”Even as inbreeding within a herd produce homozygosity, animal breeders working with a productive herd consider it to be largely unfavourable from commercial perspective.” Explain the full importance of the statement.
  5. You are entrusted with a job of developing a herd of high yielding murrah buffaloes in the shortest possible time. Using your expertise in animal husbandry, discuss how would you set about fulfilling this task, while ensuring that the herd retain its desirable traits in the subsequent generations.


  1. Write a short note on genetic drift?
  2. Explain the circumstances wherein crossing system in animal production is used. Describe the type of crossing and compare different forms of regular crossing in terms of heterosis.
  3. What calls for the use of information from relatives for selection of breeders? Discuss and differentiate family selection and within family selection schemes.

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