Animal Reproduction
Animal Nutrition
Animal Physiology
4. Animal Genetics & Breeding
5. Livestock production management (LPM)
6. Extension

Lecture 1: Syllabus and Previous Years Questions of Physiology


2. Animal Physiology

2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion.

  • Endocrine glands in health and disease.

2.2 Blood constituents – Properties and functions-blood cell formation

  • Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry, plasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood;
  • Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume
  • Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood.
  • Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.

2.3 Circulation – Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heartbeat, electrocardiograms.

  • Work and efficiency of heart
  • effect of ions on heart function
  • metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock.
  • Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid- circulation in birds.

2.4 Respiration – Mechanism of respiration,

  • Transport and exchange of gases -neural control of respiration-chemoreceptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.

2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal function

  • Renal regulation of acid-base balance:
  • physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion
  • Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function.
  • Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction.

2.6 Endocrine glands – Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis.

  • Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion
  • hormonal receptors classification and function.

2.7 Growth and Animal Production

  • Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves,
  • measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.

2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion-

  • Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection,
  • Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions.
  • Digestive organs and their functions.

2.9 Environmental Physiology

  • Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation,
  • environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour, climatology – various parameters and their importance.
  • Animal ecology.
  • Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production.

Previous Years Questions


  1. A radiolabelled substance was injected in vein of right forelimb of a cow and later it was detected in the artery of left forelimb. Illustrate its pathway through line diagram only.
  2. Explain the formation and structure of various components of chicken egg. List out various abnormalities in egg formation.
  3. Enlist various accessary sex glands of bull and describe the contribution of seminal vesicle to semen.
  4. What do you mean by acid-base balance? Explain how it is regulated by kidney.
  5. Describe the reflex stimulation of let-down of milk in dairy animals along with diagram.
  6. Enlist various hormones secreted by different reproductive organs (male and female). Write their nature, source and main functions.


  1. Give diagrammatic representation of kidney and narrate its functions.
  2. Mention digestive organs and their role in food digestion in monogastric animals.
  3. Fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS) and Fatty liver and haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS)
  4. Write in brief on the following:
  5. Blood-brain barrier
  6. Growth curve
  7. Mention different hematobiochemical tests in relation to disease diagnosis in animals.
  8. Write in detail the factors affecting water requirements of animals.
  9. Discuss various managemental practices to be adopted to ameliorate heat stress during summer for dairy cattle.


  1. Give a diagrammatic representation of heart in relation to cardiac cycle.
  2. Write the general functions of blood in animal body.
  3. Discuss the role of endocrine glands along with their secretory hormones for cell growth.
  4. Discuss the process of udder development during first parturition to second parturition in buffaloes.
  5. Give the diagrammatic representation of reproductive system of a bull.
  6. What is ‘pre-natal growth’? Discuss the various factors influencing the post-natal growth in animals.
  7. Describe the mechanism of regulation of blood clotting and fibrinolysis by vascular endothelium.


  1. Enlist different blood-proteins and describe their functions in brief. What organs of the body play a crucial role in blood-protein biosynthesis?
  2. What role is played by pulmonary circulation in the body? How are oxygen and carbon dioxide gases exchanged in this process?
  3. Why is maintenance of blood pressure vital? What are the various factors that influence blood pressure? Explain.
  4. How is urine formed? Discuss the role of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in this process.
  5. Briefly discuss different types of hormone receptors and their role in signal transduction.
  6. Explain how carbohydrates and proteins are digested in ruminant and non-ruminant animals.