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Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volume

Haemorrhagic Disorders
  • Haemophilia A,
  • Von Willebrand disease (VWD
  • Sickle Cell Anaemia
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation:

1. Haemophilia A,

It is also called factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency or classic haemophilia, is a genetic disorder caused by missing or defective factor VIII, a clotting protein. Although it is passed down from parents to children, about 1/3 of cases are caused by a spontaneous mutation, a change in a gene.


People with haemophilia A often, bleed longer than other people. Bleeds can occur internally, into joints and muscles, or externally, from minor cuts, dental procedures or trauma.

Severe haemophilia A. <1% of FVIII in the blood. People with severe haemophilia A experience bleeding following an injury and may have frequent spontaneous bleeding episodes, often into their joints and muscles.

2. Von Willebrand disease (VWD)

It is a genetic disorder caused by missing or defective von Willebrand factor (VWF), a clotting protein. VWF binds factor VIII, a key clotting protein, and platelets in blood vessel walls, which help form a platelet plug during the clotting process.


People with VWD experience frequent nosebleeds, easy bruising and excessive bleeding during and after invasive procedures, such as tooth extractions and surgery

3.Sickle Cell Anaemia

A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down. With sickle cell disease, an inherited group of disorders, red blood cells contort into a sickle shape. The cells die early, leaving a shortage of healthy red blood cells (sickle cell anaemia) and can block blood flow causing pain (sickle cell crisis).


dizziness, fatigue, low oxygen in the body, or malaise

Urinary: blood in urine or inability to make concentrated or dilute urine

 4. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

In disseminated intravascular coagulation, abnormal clumps of thickened blood (clots) form inside blood vessels. These abnormal clots use up the blood’s clotting factors, which can lead to massive bleeding in other places. Causes include inflammation, infection and cancer.


Skin: rash of small purplish spots or red spots
Acute renal failure, bleeding, blood clots, bruising, liver failure, mental confusion, or respiratory distress


Anticoagulants prevent blood clotting (both in vivo and in vitro). Some anticoagulants are only used in vivo, anticoagulants used in vivo are often termed “blood thinners”. Some anticoagulants are only used in vitro, in vitro anticoagulants are not interchangeable (in some cases).

  • Heparin is an anticoagulant used both in vivo and in vitro
  • Heparin has a half-life of 1.5 hours
  • Sodium citrate is an anticoagulant used in vitro
  • EDTA is an anticoagulant used in vitro
  • EDTA stands for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
  • EDTA binds calcium and prevents its use in the clotting cascade
  • Coumarins are orally active (in vivo) anticoagulants
  • Warfarin is the most famous
  • Coumarins are vitamin K antagonists
  • Vitamin K is an antidote for mouldy sweet clover disease (cattle)

Blood Group

blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood, based on the presence and absence of antibodies and inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system.

The human blood group system is based on three different antigens: A, B, and O. … Dogs, for their part, have more than eight different antigens that can attach to their red blood cells, most of them labeled Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7).The most important of these is called Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA) 1.1.

Blood types are classifications of heritable species-specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Seven blood types are recognized in dogs, and four blood types are identified in cats. Other cells such as leukocytes, platelets, or cells in other tissues may also share these antigens.

Alloantibodies (or isoantibodies) are antibodies present in the serum against an antigen from another animal of the same species. These may be naturally acquired (e.g. ingestion of colostrum) or induced through previous exposure (e.g. transfusion), and their presence is detected by a crossmatch.

Blood product transfusion may produce a wide range of harmful effects in veterinary patients. Some of these effects are common and may be unavoidable (e.g. fever), but others, such as immune-mediated acute and delayed transfusion reactions that are directly associated with inappropriate type and crossmatch processes in dogs and cats, can be minimized.

In this article, I present an overview of blood typing in dogs and cats and proper crossmatching techniques. I also offer decision-making recommendations for veterinarians to help avoid transfusion reactions, and I discuss the signs that may be observed if a reaction occurs.

Canine Blood Types and Antibodies

Dog blood types are numbered according to the dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) system.

DEA 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3

DEA 1 was formerly known as A and consists of four alleles.


DEA 4 occurs in up to 98% of dogs, and dogs with this type alone are considered universal donors.

DEA 3 and 5

DEA 3 and 5 are expressed in lesser proportions of the dog population.


Blood Volume & Plasma Expanders

Blood Volume

Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual. OR Amount of blood that is circulating inside the circulatory system and stored in some organs like spleen. It represents the total blood in the body. Blood volume is determined by the amount of water and sodium ingested, excreted by the kidneys into the urine, and lost through the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and skin. To maintain blood volume within a normal range, the kidneys regulate the amount of water and sodium lost into the urine

What causes low blood volume?

When you lose blood or other fluids from your body, the amount of blood left circulating, known as your blood volume, is less. Hypovolemic shock happens when a sudden and significant loss of blood or body fluids drops your blood volume.

How is blood volume and blood pressure maintained?

The kidneys provide a hormonal mechanism for the regulation of blood pressure by managing blood volume. The renin?angiotensin?aldosterone system of the kidneys regulates blood volume. … Angiotensin II constricts blood vessels throughout the body (raising blood pressure by increasing resistance to blood flow).