Daily Analysis: 24th October 2020

Index

A) Science and Technology/Defence/Space

1. Tubarial Glands: New pair of salivary glands in humans discovered (IE)

2. Project 28 and INS Kavaratti (PIB)

B) Schemes/Policies/Initiatives/Social Issues

3. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) (PIB)

C) Art, Culture and History

4. 77th anniversary of formation of Azad Hind Government (PIB)

5. Explained explained: What is the giant cat drawing at a UNESCO World Heritage site in Peru? (IE)

D) Economy

6. Financial Action Task Force (FATF): Greylist and Blacklist

7. Forex reserves hit record high of $555.12 bn (TH)

E) Indices/Committees/Reports/Organisations

8. International Labour Organisation (TH)

F) Polity/Bills/Acts/Judgments

9. Right to travel abroad (TH)

10. All about the New Parliament (TH)

G) International Relations

11. Quad and Malabar Naval Exercise (TH)

A) Science and Technology/Defence/Space

1. Tubarial Glands: New pair of salivary glands in humans discovered (IE)

Context: Researchers from the Netherlands Cancer Institute have discovered a new pair of salivary glands hidden between the nasal cavity and throat.

Analysis

  • The team proposed the name “tubarial glands” as it was found draped over the torus tubarius, the structure that supports the entrance of the auditory tube.  
  • The salivary gland system in the human body has three paired major glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual) and over 1,000 minor glands that are spread throughout the mucosa.

Should it be a new organ?

  • The classification of the tubarial glands was a matter of debate.
  • It could be either a conglomerate of minor glands, a major gland, a separate organ, or a new part of an organ system.

Why are these glands being discovered only now?

  • Researchers note that the location of these glands is at a poorly accessible anatomical location under the base of the skull, which is an area that can only be visualised using nasal endoscopy.
  • Further, conventional imaging techniques such as a CT scan, MRI and ultrasound have not allowed the visualisation of these glands.
  • For the scans done on the 100 patients, a new type of scan called the PSMA PET/CT scan was used, which was able to provide the high sensitivity and specificity required to detect these glands.

What is the purpose of these glands?

  • So far, researchers suspect that the physiological function of the glands is to moisten and lubricate the nasopharynx and the oropharynx, but this interpretation needs to be confirmed with additional research, they have said.

Significance of the discovery

  • This identification “could help to explain and avoid radiation therapy induced side-effects during cancer treatment” such as trouble during eating, swallowing, and speaking.
  • The major salivary glands whose location is already known are regarded as organs-at-risk while conducting radiation therapy and need to be spared, researchers note.

Gland vs Organ

  • An organ is a group of organized tissues to perform a specific function or a group of functions.
  • The largest organ of the mammals is the skin.
  • A gland is always an organ. It is an organised collection of secretory epithelial cells. A gland produces and release substances that can be a hormone, an enzyme, or any other secretion.
  • Glands are of two types, known as endocrine glands and exocrine glands.
  • Some glands retain their continuity with the surface via a duct and are known as Exocrine Glands.
  • Other glands lose this direct continuity with the surface when their ducts degenerate during development. These glands are known as Endocrine glands.
  • Endocrine glands release substances directly into the bloodstream, while exocrine glands release substances to the exterior or into cavities inside the body.
  • Sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, liver, Brunner’s glands and pancreas are examples for exocrine glands.
  • Exocrine glands can be Unicellular – Goblet cells, or Multicellular. 
  • Endocrine glands do not have a duct system, but exocrine glands do have a duct system through which the substances are excreted.
  • Hormones co-ordinate, integrate and regulate interdependent processes around the body. These hormones are secreted by the endocrine system.
  • Endocrine glands do not have ducts. Their secretions (hormones) are secreted into the blood stream.
  • Because of this, the hormones can act over long distances, and reach any organ in the body to co-ordinate activity.
  • Often there is a specific ‘target’ organ that the hormone acts on. This long-range activity is also often called neuroendocrine – as it is somewhat analogous to the co-ordinating activity of neurones.
  • The secretory cells of endocrine glands are therefore always found in close proximity to a capillary bed, and have a rich network of blood vessels.
  • The kidney, pancreas and gonads have both an endocrine and an exocrine function. 

Differences between Enzymes and Hormones

  • Enzymes are the biological catalyst which speed up the rate of biochemical reactions without undergoing any changes. Enzymes are generally proteins.
  • Hormones are molecules, usually a peptide (e.g.: insulin) or steroid (e.g.: estrogen) that is produced in one part of an organisms and triggers a specific cellular reactions in target tissues and organs some distance away.

2. Project 28 and INS Kavaratti (PIB)

Context: The Anti-Submarine Warfare stealth corvette, INS Kavaratti, commissioned into the Indian Navy.

Analysis

  • INS Kavaratti is the last in the series of four Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes built for the Navy by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE), Kolkata, a leading shipyard, under Project 28.
  • The timeline of the P28 class of ships built by GRSE was synchronised to factor in the unique indigenisation efforts (the ship has up to 90 per cent indigenous content).
  • Special high strength warship-grade steel type DMR 249 A, was indigenously developed for these ships’ construction.
  • INS Kavaratti and INS Kiltan are the first two major warships in the country to have the unique feature of superstructure made of Carbon Fiber Composite Material.
  • Even though some of the Fleet ships carry underwater detection capabilities like Sonars in fixed Hull or Towed array configuration, a Fleet commander prefers to have specialized Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) warships in the Fleet’s protection screen.
  • INS Kavaratti is the last of four indigenously design and built ASW Corvettes under Project 28 launched in 2003 by Indian Navy.
  • Along with INS Kamorta, INS Kadmatt & INS Kiltan will form a major part of the Eastern Fleet of the Indian Navy.
  • These ships have the capability to fight in Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare conditions too.

B) Schemes/Policies/Initiatives/Social Issues

3. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) (PIB)

Context: Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched a Mobile application for Geo tagging of the components of projects under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (PMKSY-AIBP) in order to track the pace of work and actual status of the projects with the help of Bhaskaracharya National Institute of Space Applications & Geo-informatics (BISAG-N).

Analysis

PMKSY has been conceived amalgamating ongoing schemes viz.

A) Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of the Ministry of Jal Shakti;

  1. To focus on faster completion of ongoing Major and Medium Irrigation including National Projects.

B. PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani) including Command Area Development (CAD) of the Ministry of Jal Shakti;

  1. To create of new water sources through Minor Irrigation (both surface and ground water) etc.

C. Surface Minor Irrigation (SMI) and Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies of the Ministry of Jal Shakti;

D. PMKSY (Per Drop More Crop) [Implemented by Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare]

  1. “Per drop more crop” initiative has been undertaken under which drip/sprinkler irrigation is encouraged for optimal utilization of water, reducing cost of inputs and increasing productivity.
  • E. PMKSY (Watershed Development) [Implemented by Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development].

The major objectives of PMKSY are to:

  1. Achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level;
  2. Expand cultivable area under assured irrigation (Har Khet ko pani);
  3. Improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water;
  4. Enhance the adoption of precision-irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop);
  5. Enhance recharge of aquifers;
  6. Introduce sustainable water conservation practices by exploring the feasibility of reusing treated municipal waste water for peri-urban agriculture; and
  7. Attract greater private investments in irrigation.
  • The scheme is jointly implemented by Ministries of Agriculture, Jal Shakti and Rural Development.

Other important facts:

  • Out of about 141mn hectare of net area sown in the country, about 65 million hectare (or 45%) is presently covered under irrigation. 
  • All the States and Union Territories including North Eastern States are covered under the programme.
  • The National Steering Committee (NSC) of PMKSY under the chairmanship of Prime Minister, will provide policy direction to programme framework.
  • A National Executive Committee (NEC) under the chairmanship of Vice Chairman of NITI Aayog will oversee the programme implementation at national level.

What exactly is watershed development?

  • It’s all about making running to water stop and standing water to sink inside the ground.
  • Within the site of a watershed development project, a ridge is identified and structures such as check dams, percolation dams, ponds and channels are built from the ridge to the valley.
  • Agro forestry has been promoted under “Har Medh Par Ped” for additional income.

Micro Irrigation Fund

  • Government has created a dedicated Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF) of Rs. 5000 crores with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY).
  • Its objective is to facilitate States in mobilizing resources for expanding coverage of Micro Irrigation and incentivizing its adoption beyond provisions of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana-Per Drop More Crop (PMKSY-PDMC). 
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW) is the Nodal Ministry.
  • The objective of the fund is to facilitate State Govts. efforts in mobilizing additional resources for expanding coverage under micro irrigation and incentivizing its adoption beyond provisions of PMKSY-PDMC. A total amount of Rs. 2841.57 cr stands sanctioned as on 31 March 2020 under the Fund.   
  • The Government has set the target of covering 100 lakh ha in five years under micro-irrigation.
  • The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC &FW) is implementing Per Drop More Crop component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY-PDMC) since 2015-16 for enhancing water use efficiency in agriculture sector.

Geo-fencing Vs Geo-tagging vs Geo-mapping Vs Geo-blocking

What is geo-fencing?

  • Geo-fencing is a location-based service in which an app or other software uses GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi or cellular data to trigger a pre-programmed action when a mobile device or RFID tag enters or exits a virtual boundary set up around a geographical location, known as a geo-fence. Geotagging

What is geo tagging?

  • Geo-tagging (providing geo co-ordinates) – It is the process of adding geographical identification like latitude and longitude to various media such as a photo or video. 
  • Geotagging can help users find a wide variety of location-specific information from a device.
  • It provides users the location of the content of a given picture.
  • Geo-mapping– It is a visual representation of the geographical location of geotagged assets layered on top of map or satellite imagery.

Micro Irrigation Fund

  • Government has created a dedicated Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF) of Rs. 5000 crores with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY).
  • Its objective is to facilitate States in mobilizing resources for expanding coverage of Micro Irrigation and incentivizing its adoption beyond provisions of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana-Per Drop More Crop (PMKSY-PDMC). 
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare (MoA&FW) is the Nodal Ministry.
  • The objective of the fund is to facilitate State Govts. efforts in mobilizing additional resources for expanding coverage under micro irrigation and incentivizing its adoption beyond provisions of PMKSY-PDMC. A total amount of Rs. 2841.57 cr stands sanctioned as on 31 March 2020 under the Fund.   
  • The Government has set the target of covering 100 lakh ha in five years under micro-irrigation.
  • The Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DAC &FW) is implementing Per Drop More Crop component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana (PMKSY-PDMC) since 2015-16 for enhancing water use efficiency in agriculture sector.

Geo-fencing Vs Geo-tagging vs Geo-mapping Vs Geo-blocking

What is geo-fencing?

  • Geo-fencing is a location-based service in which an app or other software uses GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi or cellular data to trigger a pre-programmed action when a mobile device or RFID tag enters or exits a virtual boundary set up around a geographical location, known as a geo-fence. Geotagging

What is geo tagging?

  • Geo-tagging (providing geo co-ordinates) – It is the process of adding geographical identification like latitude and longitude to various media such as a photo or video. 
  • Geotagging can help users find a wide variety of location-specific information from a device.
  • It provides users the location of the content of a given picture.
  • Geo-mapping– It is a visual representation of the geographical location of geotagged assets layered on top of map or satellite imagery.

C) Art, Culture and History

4. 77th anniversary of formation of Azad Hind Government (PIB)

Context: On 21st October 2020, the nation celebrated the 77th anniversary of formation of Azad Hind Government.

Analysis

  • Subhas Chandra Bose, soon after he accepted the presidency of the Indian Independence League (IIL), the civil administrative wing of the Indian National Army (INA), on July 4, 1943, on arrival at Singapore, decided that to stimulate nationalism among the Indians in southeast Asia, the INA needed dates and events to celebrate.
  • The very next day, on July 5, he announced to the world the existence of the INA and its aim: to march to Delhi (Delhi chalo).
  • His next step was the formation of a women’s regiment. The Rani of Jhansi Regiment was announced on July 12.
  • This force of several hundred was led by Captain Lakshmi Swaminathan, a doctor living in Malaya since 1940.
  • Exactly a month after he announced the existence of the INA and its mission, he took over as the supreme commander, on August 5.

Proclamation of the Provisional Government of Free India

  • The grandest day was October 21, 1943. On this day Bose announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Free India (PGFI), Arzi Hakumat-e-Azad Hind, or, in short, Azad Hind Government, an Indian government-in-exile.
  • It started functioning from Singapore with 11 ministers and eight representatives from the INA.
  • The PGFI was a culmination of the political movement originating in the early 1940s outside India with the purpose to liberate her from the British rule.
  • The government of Azad Hind soon had its own currency, court, civil code and national anthem ‘Subh Sukh Chain’.
  • The INA had its motto, ‘Ittehad, Itmad aur Qurbani (unity, faith and sacrifice) and its national greeting ‘Jai Hind’.
  • The PGFI was recognised by nine Axis-aligned countries: Japan, Germany, Italy, Croatia, Burma, Thailand, Philippines, Manchukuo (Manchuria), and the Republic of China (Wang Jingwei regime).
  • It received a note of congratulations from the Prime Minister of Ireland, Eamon de Valera.
  • The 21st of every month thereafter was marked as a day of celebration.
  • Leaders would talk about the month’s progress at the end of the programme, which included narrating the advancement of INA at the Arakan front, update on the gradual transfer of the headquarters closer to Burma border, later, setting up of the INA headquarters in Rangoon on January 25, 1944, etc.

5. Explained explained: What is the giant cat drawing at a UNESCO World Heritage site in Peru? (IE)

  • Context: Peru’s famous Nazca Lines, a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for its depictions of larger-than-life animals, plants and imaginary beings, grabbed the spotlight on social media recently after the discovery of a hitherto unknown massive carving –– that of a resting cat, believed to be more than 2,000 years old, on the slope of a steep hill.

Analysis

What are the Nazca Lines?

  • Considered among the top places to visit in Peru, the Nazca Lines are a group of geoglyphs, or large designs made on the ground by creators using elements of the landscape such as stones, gravel, dirt or lumber.
  • These are believed to be the greatest known archaeological enigma, owing to their size, continuity, nature and quality.
  • The images on the ground are so big in size that the best way to get a full view of them is overflying them.
  • Drawn more than 2 millennia ago on the surface of southern Peru’s arid Pampa Colorada (“Red Plain” in Spanish), the geoglyphs feature different subjects, but mainly plants and animals.
  • There are also geometric shapes, such as triangles, trapezoids and spirals, and some have been associated with astronomical functions.
  • The Lines were first discovered in 1927, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1994.
  • Scientists believe that the majority of lines were made by the Nasca people, who flourished from around A.D. 1 to 700.
  • The rocks which cover the desert have oxidized and weathered to a deep rust color, and when the top 12-15 inches of rock is removed, a light-colored, high contrasting sand is exposed.
  • Because there’s so little rain, wind and erosion, the exposed designs have stayed largely intact for 500 to 2000 years.
  • It seems likely that most of the lines did not point at anything on the geographical or celestial horizon, but rather led to places where rituals were performed to obtain water and fertility of crops; the region receives only about 20 minutes of rain per year

D) Economy

6. Financial Action Task Force (FATF): Greylist and Blacklist

Context: The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has decided to keep Pakistan on the “Jurisdictions under increased monitoring” or “grey list” till the next review of its compliance with the recommendations made in February next year.

Analysis

  • Pakistan has made progress across all action plan items and has now largely addressed 21 of 27 action items but as the all action plan deadlines had expired, the FATF kept Pakistan in the grey list.
  • At the FATF Plenary, Turkey proposed that members should consider Pakistan’s good work and instead of waiting for completion of the remaining six of the 27 parameters, an FATF on-site team should visit the country to finalise its assessment.
  • On-site teams are permitted only after jurisdictions complete their Action Plans.
  • However, when the proposal was placed before the 39-member Plenary, no other member seconded the move; it was not supported even by China, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia.
  • The FATF finally decided to keep Pakistan in the “grey list”. Pakistan has now almost four months to comply with the recommendations as its performance will now be put to scrutiny in the next plenary in February 2021.
  • The points on which Pakistan failed to deliver included inaction against charitable organisations or non-profit organisations linked to terror groups banned by the UNSC.
  • With Pak continues to remain in the grey list, it has become increasingly difficult for it to get financial aid from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the European Union, exacerbating problems for the cash-strapped country.
  • To avoid the blacklist, Pak has needed the support of three other countries and it has been consistently backed by China, Turkey and Malaysia to dodge the label.
  • However, the country needs 12 votes out of 39 to exit the grey list and move to the white list.
  • The FATF plenary decided to remove Iceland and Mongolia out of the grey list, but Iran and North Korea remain on the so-called ‘black list’.
  • The greylist refers to countries that are “monitored jurisdictions” that are being reviewed for actions to stop terror financing and money laundering, while the blacklist refers to countries facing a “call to action” or severe banking strictures, sanctions and difficulties in accessing loans.
  • When the FATF places a jurisdiction under increased monitoring ‘grey list’, it means the country has committed to resolve swiftly the identified strategic deficiencies within agreed timeframes and is subject to increased monitoring.
  • The current FATF grey list, by October 2020, includes the following countries: Albania, the Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Cambodia, Ghana, Jamaica, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Syria, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe.
  • The plenary, FATF’s highest decision-making body, will next meet in February 2021 and has given Pakistan time until then to meet all the 27 parameters, especially those that pertain to imposing sanctions on terrorist outfits.

Outstanding action points 

  • The six outstanding action points that Pakistan has to meet mostly pertain to:
  1. Terror financing investigations,
  2. Demonstrating terror financing prosecutions,
  3. Effective implementation of targeted financial sanctions against United Nations-designated terrorists, and
  4. Federal authorities cooperating on enforcement cases.
  • Pakistan has been on the FATF grey list since the June 2018 plenary.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

  • It is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 by a Group of Seven (G-7) Summit in Paris.
  • G-7 Countries: Canada, U.S., U.K., Italy, France, Germany and Japan – the seven largest advanced economies.
  • Earlier it was G-8 when Russia was suspended from it because of Russia’s annexation of Crimea, a part of Ukraine.
  • It helps in combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system. 
  • The FATF’s decision making body, the FATF Plenary, meets three times per year.  

The FATF Monitors:

  1. The progress of its members in implementing necessary measures,
  2. Reviews money laundering and terrorist financing techniques and counter-measures, and
  3. Promotes the adoption and implementation of appropriate measures globally. 
  • In collaboration with other international stakeholders, the FATF works to identify national-level vulnerabilities with the aim of protecting the international financial system from misuse.
  • The FATF is an international policy-making body. It does not take a role in law enforcement matters, investigations or prosecutions.
  • The FATF does not address at all issues related to low tax jurisdiction or tax competition.
  • The FATF mandate focuses only on the fight against laundering of proceeds of crimes and the financing of terrorism.

FATF Members and Observers

  • The FATF currently comprises 39 members (37 countries including China and India and 2 regional organisations – European Commission, Gulf Co-operation Council), representing most major financial centres in all parts of the globe.
  • Pakistan is not a member of FATF.
  • From the Indian sub-continent, India is the only member of FATF.
  • FATF Observers: Indonesia.

7. Forex reserves hit record high of $555.12 bn (TH)

Context: The country’s foreign exchange reserves touched a life time high of $555.12 billion after it surged by $3.615 billion in the week ended October 16, according to RBI data.

Analysis

  • During the latest reporting week, the rise in total reserves was due to a sharp rise in Foreign Currency Assets (FCAs), a major component of the overall reserves.
  • FCAs include the effect of appreciation or depreciation of non-U.S. units such as the euro, pound and yen held in the foreign exchange reserves.

Analysis

Why are forex reserves rising despite the slowdown in the economy?

  • The major reason for the rise in forex reserves is the rise in investment in foreign portfolio investors in Indian stocks and foreign direct investments (FDIs).
  • On the other hand, the fall in crude oil prices has brought down the oil import bill, saving the precious foreign exchange.
  • Similarly, overseas remittances and foreign travels have fallen steeply – down 61 per cent in April from $12.87 billion. The months of May and June are expected to show further decline in dollar outflows.

What’s the significance of rising forex reserves?

  • Reserves will provide a level of confidence to markets that a country can meet its external obligations, demonstrate the backing of domestic currency by external assets, assist the government in meeting its foreign exchange needs and external debt obligations and maintain a reserve for national disasters or emergencies.
  • The rising reserves have also helped the rupee to strengthen against the dollar.

India’s Forex Reserves

  • India’s forex reserves comprise:
  1. Foreign Currency Assets (FCAs) (capital inflows to the capital markets, FDI and external commercial borrowings),
  2. Gold reserves,
  3. Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) and
  4. India’s reserve position with the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • FCAs constitute the largest component of the forex reserves.
  • They are followed by gold reserves > India’s reserve position with the IMF > Special Drawing Rights.
  • Besides the US dollar, FCAs consist of 20-30 per cent of the other major global currencies.
  • Forex reserves are one of the key revenue-earning sources for the central bank, which invests the money in foreign government bonds and also with the IMF and other secure investment classes.
  • A portion of the forex kitty is also used to shore up the gold reserves.
  • Expressed in dollar terms, foreign currency assets include the effect of appreciation/ depreciation of non-US units like the euro, pound and yen held in the reserves.

Special drawing rights (SDR)

  • Special drawing rights (SDR) refer to an international type of monetary reserve currency created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1969 that operates as a supplement to the existing reserves of member countries.
  • Created in response to concerns about the limitations of gold and dollars as the sole means of settling international accounts, SDRs augment international liquidity by supplementing the standard reserve currencies.
  • Effective October 1, 2016 the SDR basket consists of the US dollar, euro, the Chinese renminbi, Japanese yen, and British pound sterling.
  • Together, the dollar and euro make up 70% of the basket’s value.
  • The SDR basket is reviewed every five years, and sometimes earlier if warranted.
  • Reviews take place to ensure that the SDR reflects the relative importance of currencies in the world’s trading and financial systems.

Reserve Tranche

  • The IMF is funded through its members and their quota contributions.
  • The reserve tranche is basically an emergency account that IMF members can access at any time without agreeing to economic reform conditions or paying a service fee.
  • In other words, a portion of a member country’s quota can be withdrawn free of charge at its own discretion.
  • The reserve tranches that countries hold with the IMF are considered their facilities of first resort, meaning they will tap into them before seeking a formal credit tranche that charges interest.
  • 10 Countries with the Biggest Forex Reserves: China > Japan > Switzerland > Saudi Arabia > Russia > Taiwan > Hong Kong > India > South Korea > Brazil.

E) Indices/Committees/Reports/Organisations

8. International Labour Organisation (TH)

Context: India assumed the role of chair of the International Labour Organisation’s governing body. It is taking up the role after a gap of 35 years.

Analysis

  • Labour Secretary Apurva Chandra will preside over its meeting in November. The ILO body decides on matters of agenda and budget as well as elects the Director-General.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

  • Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations, the ILO became the first affiliated specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946.
  • The ILO was founded in the wake of a destructive war, to pursue a vision based on the premise that universal, lasting peace can be established only if it is based on social justice.
  • In recognition of its activities, the ILO was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1969.
  • The functions of the ILO include the development and promotion of standards for national legislation to protect and improve working conditions and standards of living.
  • Among intergovernmental organizations the ILO is unique in that its approximately 187 member states are represented not only by delegates of their governments but also by delegates of those states’ employers and workers, especially trade unions. 
  • The ILO also helps to protect the rights of international migrants and organized labour.
  • The International Labour Office is in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Among the ILO’s many publications are the International Labour Review and the Year Book of Labour Statistics.

Main bodies

  • The ILO accomplishes its work through three main bodies which comprise governments’, employers’ and workers’ representatives:
  • 1. The International labour Conference sets the International labour standards and the broad policies of the ILO. It meets annually in Geneva.
  • Often called an international parliament of labour, the Conference is also a forum for discussion of key social and labour questions.
  • 2. The Governing body is the executive council of the ILO. It meets three times a year in Geneva.
  • It takes decisions on ILO policy and establishes the programme and the budget, which it then submits to the Conference for adoption.
  • 3. The International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization.
  • It is the focal point for International Labour Organization’s overall activities, which it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of the Director-General.

F) Polity/Bills/Acts/Judgments

9. Right to travel abroad (TH)

  • The Supreme Court has held that the right to travel abroad is an inseverable part of the fundamental right to dignity and personal liberty (Article 21 of the Constitution).
  • A recent judgment by a Bench decided the “interesting” question whether a court can make the ban on travelling abroad a condition for granting bail.

10. All about the New Parliament (TH)

Context: Construction on the new Parliament building, estimated to cost ?970 crore, will start in December and likely to be completed by October 2022.

Analysis

  • On December 12, 1911, at the coronation of George V as Emperor of India, he announced the transfer of the seat of the government of India from “Calcutta to the ancient Capital of Delhi.”
  • Architects Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker embarked upon a 20-year-long project, and built Parliament House, Rashtrapati Bhawan, North and South Blocks, Rajpath, India Gate and the National Archives.
  • New Delhi was finally unveiled in 1931.

Parliament

  • The opening ceremony of the Parliament was performed in January 1927 by the then Governor-General of India, Lord Irwin.

Central Hall

  • The Central Hall is a place of historical importance.
  • The transfer of power on the midnight of 14-15 August 1947 from British to Indian hands took place in this Hall.
  • The Central Hall was originally used as the Library of the erstwhile Central Legislative Assembly and the Council of States.
  • The Indian Constitution was also framed in the Central Hall.
  • In 10946, it was converted and refurnished into the Constituent Assembly Hall.
  • The Constituent Assembly met there from 9 December 1946 to 24 January 1950.
  • At present, the Central Hall is used for holding Joint Sittings of the two Houses.
  • At the commencement of the first session after each General Elections to Lok Sabha and at the commencement of the first Session of each year, the President addresses Members of both the Houses of Parliament assembled together in the Central Hall.
  • When the Houses are in Session, the Central Hall is used by Members for informal discussions among themselves.
  • The Central Hall is also used for special occasions when the Members of Parliament are addressed by distinguished Heads of State of other countries.

Lok Sabha Chamber

  • It is semi-circular in shape.
  • It has a seating facility for 550 Members.
  • The seats on the right-hand side of the Speaker’s Chair are occupied by Members of the Government party and those on the left-hand side by Members belonging to the Opposition Parities/Groups.
  • Shri Vithalbhai Patel was the first elected President of the Central Legislative Assembly.

Rajya Sabha – The Second Chamber

  • In India, a Second Chamber was envisaged for the first time under the Montague Chelmsford Reforms proposals.
  • The Government of India Act, 1919, accordingly, provided that the Indian Legislature shall consist of the Governor-General and the two chambers, namely the Council of State and the House of Assembly.
    • The term of the Council was fixed at five years.
  • Under the Government of India Act, 1935; however, the Council of State was made a continuous body, not subject to dissolution.
  • The members were to hold their seats for nine years and one-third of them retiring at the end of every three years.
  • But the scheme envisaged for the Second Chamber under the Government of India Act, 1935, never materialized because the provisions pertaining to the federal structure under the Act were never put into operation.
  • As a result, the Second Chamber set up under the Government of India Act, 1919 continued to function till 1947.
  • The Union Constitution Committee, set up by the Constituent Assembly under the chairmanship of Shri Jawaharlal Nehru, in its report, made certain proposals in respect of the Second Chamber at the Centre.
  • The motion was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 28 July 1947 after debates regarding necessity of a second chamber.
  • First election to the Council of States was held in March 1952 and the House was constituted on 3 April the same year. The Rajya Sabha, its Hindi nomenclature, was adopted on 23 August 1954.

G) International Relations

11. Quad and Malabar Naval Exercise (TH)

  • Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) and Malabar Naval Exercise were covered on 2nd September and 30th September respectively.

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