- It is a part of the efforts taken by the Ministry of Education/Human Resource Development to improve quality of education.
- It has been launched w.e.f. 2018-19.
- It extends from pre-school to class XII.
- The Scheme covers all children from the age of 4 to 18 years and has a scope across all levels of school education from Pre-school to Senior Secondary.
- Along with universal access, ensuring retention of children till completion of schooling is one of the major objectives of the Scheme.
- It aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.
- It envisages the ‘school’ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to senior secondary levels.
- It susbsumes the three erstwhile centrally sponsored schemes:
- Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA),
- Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and
- Teacher Education (TE).
- Bridging gender and social category gaps at all levels of school education is one of the major objectives of the scheme.
- It supports States for strengthening of school infrastructure including in rural areas.
- The scheme envisages an annual recurring composite school grant varying from 25,000/- to 1,00,000/- per annum depending upon the enrollment of students, for all government schools.
- Each school is required to spend at least 10 per cent of the composite school grant on activities related to Swachhata Action Plan.
- Under the Samagra Shiksha, provisions have been made for library grant to government schools so as to inculcate reading habit among students of all ages and to strengthen school libraries, including purchase of books.
- National Centre for Children’s Literature (NCCL) is a wing of National Book Trust (NBT).
Samagra Shiksha focuses on improvement in quality of education by providing support for different interventions like:
- In-service training of teachers and school heads,
- Conduct of achievement surveys at state and national level,
- Composite school grant to every school for providing a conducive learning environment,
- ICT and digital initiatives,
- Remedial teaching for academically weaker students, etc.
Do you know?
- Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan (under MHRD) covers children in the age range of 4–18 years.
- ICDS-Integrated Child Development Services (under MWCD) covers children in the age range of 0–6 years.
- Disha-Early Intervention and School Readiness Scheme for Person with Disability (under MSJE) covers children with disabilities in the age range of 0–10 years.
- National Health Mission (under MHFW) covers children in the age range of 0–18 years.
Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
- The ‘Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat’ (PBBB) is a sub-programme of erstwhile Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) which is continued under the new integrated scheme Samagra Shiksha to ensure quality at the foundational years of schooling.
- The objectives of the programme are to promote early reading and writing with comprehension skills in children, and also basic numeracy skills.
- States/ UTs are implementing PBBB in their respective States/UTs using multiple strategies and approaches including collaboration with organizations like UNICEF etc.
- Central Government has taken various steps towards the implementation of the programme of PBBB, which inter-alia, include:
- Preparation of special bridge materials for States having a high tribal population;
- Provisioning of free textbooks, development and procurement of supplementary reading material;
- In-service teacher training;
- Having dedicated teachers for foundational classes and maintaining the required Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) as prescribed under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.
- At primary level the PTR should be 30:1 and at the upper primary level it should be 35:1.
- The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) framework stipulates that the PTR at secondary level should be 30:1.
Samagra Shiksha and Promotion of Girls’ Education
- Under Samagra Shiksha, various interventions have been targeted for girls, which include:
- Opening of schools in the neighbourhood as defined by the State,
- Provision of free text-books to girls up to Class VIII,
- Uniforms to all girls up to class VIII,
- Provision of gender segregated toilets in all schools,
- Teachers’ sensitization programmes to promote girls’ participation,
- Provision for Self-Defence training for the girls from classes VI to XII,
- Stipend to CWSN girls from class I to Class XII,
- Construction of residential quarters for teachers in remote/hilly areas/in areas with difficult terrain.
- In addition to this, to reduce gender gaps at all levels of school education and for providing quality education to girls from disadvantaged groups, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) have been sanctioned in Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs) under Samagra Shiksha.
- KGBVs are residential schools from class VI to XII for girls belonging to disadvantaged groups such as SC, ST, OBC, Minority and Below Poverty Line (BPL).
NISHTHA – National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement
- The Department of School Education and Literacy has launched a National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the Elementary level through an Integrated Teacher Training Programme called NISHTHA – National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancementunder the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha in 2019-20.
- The aim of this training is to motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students, handle diverse situations and act as first level counsellors.
- It stands for National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA).
- It is an initiative of the Human Resource Development Ministry and is “the world’s largest teacher training programme”.
- Under this programme, more than 42 lakh teachers and principals of primary and elementary-age government schools across the country will undergo a five-day training programme over the next few months to learn innovative teaching methods, the use of art and technology in the classroom and basic counselling techniques.
- In the same manner, more than 1 million higher education teachers will be trained under ARPIT programme.
Youth and Eco Club and Rangotsav
- Samagra Shiksha – an Integrated Scheme for School Education has been launched throughout the country as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with effect from the year 2018-19.
- Approval has been given to States and UTs for setting up of Youth and Eco Club in Government Schools in 2019-20 under Samagra Shiksha.
- Further, in order to experience and celebrate the rich cultural diversity of India and to encourage experimental learning, Rangotsav was organized in schools in 2018-19.
- Rangotsav is an initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development aimed to promote experiential learning.
On-line learning Tools of the Ministry of Human Resource and Development
- SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 32 D2H TV channels transmitting educational contents on 24/7 basis.
- These channels are free to air and can also be accessed through your cable operator.
- These channels cover diverse disciplines such as arts, science, commerce, performing arts, social sciences and humanities subjects, engineering, technology, law, medicine, agriculture etc. for all teachers, students and citizensacross the country interested in lifelong learning.
- The channels cover both School Education (class IX to XII) and Higher Education (under graduate, post graduate, engineering, out of school children, vocational courses and teacher training).
- The telecasted videos/lectures are also available as archived videos on the Swayam Prabha portal.
Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM)
- SWAYAM platform is indigenously developed by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) with the help of Microsoft.
- All the courses, taught in classrooms from 9th class till post-graduation to be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time.
- It provides one integrated platform and portal for online courses.
- This covers all higher education subjects and skill sector courses.
- It is intended to host about 2000 courses and 80000 hours of learning material, within two years: covering school, under-graduate, post-graduate, engineering, law and other professional courses.
- SWAYAM is designed to achieve the three cardinal principles of Education Policy viz., access, equity and quality.
- SWAYAM seeks to bridge the digital divide for students who have hitherto remained untouched by the digital revolution and have not been able to join the mainstream of the knowledge economy.
- This is done through a platform that facilitates hosting of all the courses, taught in classrooms from Class 9 till post-graduation to be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time.
- All the courses are interactive, prepared by the best teachers in the country and are available, free of cost to any learner.
- The courses hosted on SWAYAM are in 4 quadrants –
- Video lecture,
- Specially prepared reading material that can be downloaded/printed
- Self-assessment tests through tests and quizzes and
- An online discussion forum for clearing the doubts.
- Courses delivered through SWAYAM are available free of cost to the learners, however learners wanting a SWAYAM certificate should register for the final proctored exams that come at a fee and attend in-person at designated centres on specified dates.
- It is a database of experts which provides information about experts to peers, prospective collaborators, funding agencies policy makers and research scholar in the country.
- DIKSHA the nation’s digital infrastructure for providing quality e-content for school education in states/UTs and QR coded Energized Textbooks for all grades (one nation, one digital platform).
- Diksha has more than 80000 e-Books for class 12th created by CBSE, NCERT and States/UTs which are available in multiple languages.
- In this web portal NCERT has deployed audios, videos, e-books (e-Pubs) and Flip Books for classes 1st to 12th in different languages.
- It is a consortium for Higher Education E-Resources.
- Its aim is to provide access to qualitative electronic resources including full-text, bibliographic and factual databases (core and peer-reviewed journals and a number of bibliographic, citation and factual databases in different disciplines) to academic institutions at a lower rates of subscription.
- Project e-Yantra is an initiative to spread education in Embedded systems and Robotics by IIT Bombay sponsored by Ministry of Human Resource Development through the National Mission on Education through ICT (NMEICT).
- It is a digital repository for research scholars across Universities and Institutes to deposit, re-use & share their Theses & Dissertations in digital formats including scanned documents.
- It is in open access to the world-wide academic community.
- Under this initiative, research scholars / research supervisors in universities could deposit an electronic version of approved synopsis submitted by research scholars to the universities for registering themselves under the Ph.D. programme.
- Synopses in Shodhgangotri would later be mapped to full-text thesis in Shodhganga.
- Special e-content for visually and hearing impaired developed on Digitally Accessible Information System (DAISY).
National Digital Library (NDL)
- It aims to collect, preserve and disseminate entire intellectual output of our country and provide online access from school level to postgraduate level, including technical education.
- Under this scheme, meta-data (a set of data that describes and gives information about other data) of e-resources within and outside the country are made available to the learners, on anyone, anytime, anywhere access mode.
- Some licensed resources as well as resources having no copyright violation are provided as a complete document in digital formats, including scanned documents.
- The contents cover almost all major domains of education and all major levels of learners including life-long learners.
- The NDL is available through a mobile app too.