UPSC Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional Syllabus

Animal Husbandry Optional Syllabus – Union Public Service Commission have 48 optional subjects for the UPSC CSE Mains exam. UPSC Aspirants can opt any one optional subject from UPSC list as per student academic background or interest. Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science Optional has a very less syllabus that means that you can score very high marks and thus can ensure good Rank and Cadre. UPSC Syllabus for veterinary science is further divided into 2 Papers as follows:

Syllabus of Paper I covers topics related to genetics & animal breeding, livestock production & management, animal nutrition, physiology, reproduction and extension education.

Syllabus Paper-II covers topics related to animal diseases, anatomy, pharmacology, hygiene,  veterinary public health, milk products & technology related to it, meat hygiene & technology.

UPSC Veterinary Optional Syllabus
Animal Husbandry Optional Syllabus

Animal Husbandry Syllabus for UPSC 2023

Why we need to focus on UPSC Veterinary Syllabus while preparing for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Optional ?

  1. UPSC Aspirants must always know Optional Syllabus as the syllabus is the Guiding Light for preparation.
  2. Underline keywords and Focus your preparation as per the UPSC Animal Husbandry Syllabus
  3. Regularly check previous year papers for a better understanding of the kind of questions asked from veterinary UPSC syllabus in previous years.

Who Choose Animal Husbandry and Veterinary science Optional in UPSC ?

Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science as an optional is a choice among students, who have background in the B.Sc. Agriculture, dairy technology, dairy farming/meat business, Zoology, B.Sc. Science Veterinary medicine and those who are veterinary doctors/B.V.Sc &A.H. 

Syllabus of Paper 1

Animal Genetics and Breeding

Sr Topics  
1 Mitosis and Meiosis, Linkage and Crossing over;  Mendelian inheritance; Deviations to Mendelian genetics;  Cytoplasmic inheritance.   
2 Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Expression of genes; Recombinant DNA technology.  
3 Sex determination, Blood groups and polymorphism; Sex influenced and Sex-limited characters;   
4 Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Trans-genesis. Chromosome aberrations;   
5 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits;  
6 Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing gene frequency;   
7 Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Effective population size;   
8 Breeding value, Estimation of breeding value,  Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.  
9 Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between relatives; dominance and epistatic deviation;  
10 Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestock and Poultry. Inbreeding, out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production;  
11 Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding  
12 Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Partitioning of variation;   
13 Aids to selection and their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing;   
14 Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response;  

Animal Physiology

1 Blood constituents – Properties and functions, Blood cell formation, Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry, plasma proteins production, classification and properties,    
2 Coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic disorders, Anticoagulants, Blood groups & Blood volume, Plasma expanders    
3 Buffer systems in blood, Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.    
4 Circulation – Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heartbeat, electrocardiograms, Effect of ions on heart function, Metabolism of cardiac muscle    
5 Nervous and Chemical regulation of heart, Effect of temperature and stress on heart; Blood Pressure and hypertension, Osmotic regulation, Arterial pulse, Vasomotor regulation of circulation & Shock.     
6 Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier, Cerebrospinal fluid, Circulation in birds.    
7 Respiration – Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases, Neural control of respiration, Chemoreceptors, Hypoxia & Respiration in birds.     
8 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney, Formation of urine, Methods of studying renal function, Renal regulation of acid-base balance  Physiological constituents of urine    
9 Urinary secretion in chicken, Sweat glands and their function, & Bio-chemical test for urinary dysfunction, Renal failure, Passive venous congestion,     
10 Endocrine glands – Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis & Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion, Hormonal receptors classification and function.     
11 Prenatal and postnatal growth, Maturation, Growth curves, Measures of growth, Factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality, Hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection,     
12 Male and Female reproductive organs, their components and functions & Digestive organs and their functions.    
13 Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation; Mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour,     
14 Animal ecology, Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health and production. Climatology – various parameters and their importance.     

Animal Nutrition

1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry.      
2 Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – Nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods.     
3 Energy and Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation etc  Energy protein interrelationships.    
4 Latest advances in protein nutrition – Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets.  Evaluation of protein quality.     
5 Major and trace minerals – Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions.    
6 Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, their sources and deficiency symptoms.    
7 Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts.    
8 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and feed processing. Feed analysis and quality control.     
9 Anti – nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds.     
10 Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.    
11 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls.     
12 Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition.    
13 Feeding of goats for meat and milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.    
14 Swine Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.    
15 Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.    

Livestock Production Management

1 Commercial Dairy Farming & Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries.  
2 Mixed farming and specialized farming, Economic dairy farming,  Socio-economic concept.  
3 Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming,   
4 Factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal.   
5 Herd recording, budgeting, Cost of milk production, Pricing policy; Personnel Management.  Feeding records.  
6 Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.  
7 Supply of greens throughout the year, Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock;  
8 Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry.   
9 Supply of greens throughout the year, Feeding regimes for young and mature stock & New trends in enhancing production and management.   
10 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities  

Extension Education

Lecture Topics Covered   
1 Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension.   
2 Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions.   
3 Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints in transfer of technology.   
4 Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.  

Animal Reproduction

Lecture  Topic  
1 Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination  
2 Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, sperm concentration  
3 Factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception.   
4 Composition of diluents & Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Transport of diluted semen.   
5 Anoestrus and repeat breeding. Factors leading to Infertility  

Syllabus of Paper 2

Paper 2

Histology, Anatomy, Pharmacology and Veterinary Hygiene

Lecture  Topic  
1 Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E. staining, Freezing microtomy, Bright field microscope and electron microscope.   
2 Cytology- Structure of cell, organelles and inclusions; Cell division & Cell types, Tissues and their classification- Embryonic and Adult tissues   
3 Comparative histology of Organs- Vascular, Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo-skeletal   
4 Comparative histology of Organs- Urogenital systems Endocrine glands, Integuments & Sense organs.  
5 Gametogenesis, Fertilization & Germ layers, Germ layer derivatives- Endodermal, Mesodermal and Ectodermal derivates.  
6 Foetal membranes and placentation, types of placenta in domestic mammals, Teratology, twins and twinning, Organogenesis   
7 Regional Anatomy: Para-nasal sinuses of ox, Surface anatomy of salivary glands, Structures involved in epidural anaesthesia,  Superficial lymph nodes  
8 Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar, mental and cornual nerve block.   
9 Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves  
10 Surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities, Comparative features of locomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.  
11 Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system, Functional anatomy in relation to respiration, Flying, digestion and egg production.  
12 Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids.   
13 Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance,  Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system.   
14 Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections, Chemotherapy of parasitic infections.   
15 Use of hormones in therapeutics & Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues of animals, Chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.  
16 Toxicity due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.  
17 Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil, Importance of climate in animal health, Stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.  
18 Effect of environment on animal function and performance- Relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture, Animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birds  

Animal Diseases

Lecture  Topic  
1 Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat  
2 Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat  
3 Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat  
4 Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of  horses, pigs and poultry.  
5 Etiology, epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Post-mortem lesions, Diagnosis, and Control of infectious diseases of  horses, pigs and poultry.  
6 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.  
7 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.  
8 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.  
9 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.  
10 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like Impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion  
11 Dehydration, stroke, poisoning, Diagnosis and treatment of the neurological disorders.  
12 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases, herd immunity, disease free zones, ‘zero’ disease concept, chemoprophylaxis, Disease free zone  
13 Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation.   
14 Hernia, choking abomasal displacement- Caesarean operations, Rumenotomy-Castrations.  
15 Disease investigation techniques, Materials for laboratory investigation, Establishment of Animal Health Centres  

Veterinary Public Health

Lecture  Topic  
1 Zoonoses – Classification, definition,  Occupational zoonotic diseases. Role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases  
2 Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, Application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control.   
3 Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections.   
4 IE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.   
5 Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases – State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases  
6 SPCA- Veterolegal cases Certificates, Materials and Methods of collection of samples for vetero-legal investigation.  

Livestock Product Technology

Lecture Topics Covered  
1 Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their control.  
2 Preparation: Pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks.  
3 Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand.  
4 Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.  
5 Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing and marketing of Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese  
6 Selection of raw materials, processing, storing, distributing and marketing of Condensed, Evaporated, Dried milk and Baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi;   
7 By-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards  
8 Quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control. Costing of dairy products  
9 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, Stunning, Slaughter and Dressing operations; Abattoir requirements and designs;   
10 Meat inspection procedures and Judgement of carcass meat cuts, Grading of carcass meat cuts- Duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.  
11 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat, Spoilage of meat and control measures, Post – slaughter physiochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them  
12 Quality improvement methods, Adulteration of meat and detection, Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.   
13 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat, Meat emulsions, Methods of preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and formulations.   
14 Slaughter house by-products and their utilization, Edible and inedible by products, Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.   
15 Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre – slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS standards.   
16 Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. Value added meat products.   
17 Social and economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter house by-products Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.  

Key Points to Remember

  1. All Students should remember that Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science Optional for UPSC is potentially  a very high scoring subject.
  2. Your Preparation should be in-depth to be able to score high in both papers.
  3. You must solve questions from previous years’ UPSC question papers to be able to crack the UPSC Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science Optional.